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Full text of "Hashish smuggling and passport fraud : ''the brotherhood of eternal love'' : hearing before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-third Congress, first session, October 3, 1973"

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"The  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love" 










OCTOBER  3,  1973 

Printed  for  the  use  of  the  Committee  on  the  Judiciary 


23-638  0  WASHINGTON   :    1973 



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"The  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love" 










OCTOBER  3,  1973 

Printed  for  the  use  of  the  Committee  on  the  Judiciary 

2»-638  0  WASHINGTON   :    1973 

For  sale  by  the  Superintendent  of  Documents,  U.S.  Government  Printing  OfBce 
Washington,  D.C.  20402  -  Price  $1.15 



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JAMES  O.  EASTLAND,  Mississippi,  Chairman 
JOHN  L.  McCLELLAN,  Arkansas  ROMAN  L.  HRUSKA,  Nebraska 

SAM  J.  ERVIN,  Jr.,  North  Carolina  HIRAM  L.  FONG,  Hawaii 

PHILIP  A.  HART,  Michigan  HUGH  SCOTT,  Pennsylvania 

EDWARD  M.  KENNEDY,  Massachusetts  STROM  THURMOND,  South  Carolina 

BIRCH  BAYH.  Indiana  MARLOW  W.  COOK,  Kentucky 

QUENTIN  N.  BURDICK.  North  Dakota  CHARLES  McC.  MATHIAS,  Jr.,  Maryland 

ROBERT  C.  BYRD,  West  Virginia  EDWARD  J.  QURNEY,  Florida 

JOHN  V.  TDNNEY,  California 

Subcommittee  To  Investigate  the  Administration  of  the  Intebnal 
Security  Act  and  Other  Internal  Security  Laws 
JAMES  O.  EASTLAND,  Mississippi,  Chairman 
JOHN  L.  McCLELLAN,  Arkansas  STROM  THURMOND.  South  Carolina 

SAM  J.  ERVIN,  Jr.,  North  Carolina  MARLOW  W.  COOK,  Kentucky 

BIRCH  BAYH,  Indiana  EDWARD  J.  GURNEY.  Florida 

J.  Q.  SouRWiNB,  Chief  Counsel 

Raymond  Sifly,  Jr.,  Minority  Counsel 

John  R.  Norpel,  Director  of  Research 

Alfonso  L.  Tarabochia,  Chief  Investigator 


Resolved,  by  the  Internal  Security  Subcommittee  of  the  Senate 
Committee  on  the  Judiciary,  that  the  testimony  of  John  R.  Bartels,  Jr., 
Gene  R.  Haislip,  Lloyd  Sinclear,  and  Ernest  Donald  Strange,  all  of 
the  Drug  Enforcement  Administration;  and  the  testimony  of  Miss 
Frances  G.  Knight,  AVilliam  E.  Duggan,  and  John  O'DoAvd,  all  of  the 
Passport  Office,  Department  of  State,  taken  in  executive  session  on 
October  3, 1973,  be  released  from  the  injunction  of  secrecy,  be  printed 
and  made  public. 

James  O.  Eastland,  Chairman. 
Approved  December  10, 1973. 


^     , Page 

^^  John^R.  Bartels,  Jr.,  Acting  Administrator,  Drug  Enforcement  Ad- 
ministration    _ 

Lloyd  Sinclair,  group  supervisor,  DEA_        ' 

Ernest  Donald  Strange,  special  agent,  DEA » 

Gene  R.  Haislip,  Counsel,  DEA ^'^ 

Afternoon  Session 

Testimony  of —  „  ,    -^  _        --v        ^        *     * 

Miss' Frances  G.  Knight,  Director,  Passport  Office,  Department  of 

QiX-  ^ OiJ 

William"  E.'  Duggan,'  Chief,'  Legal  Division,  Passport  Office       43 

John  O'Dowd,  attorney-adviser.  Legal  Division,  Passport  Office o^ 



"The  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love" 


U.S.  Senate, 
SuBCX)MMi'rrEE  To  Investigate  the 
Administration  of  the  Internal  Security  Act 

AND  Other  Internal  Security  Laws 
OF  THE  Committee  on  the  Judiciary, 

Washington^  D.C. 

The  subcommittee  met,  pursuant  to  notice,  at  11 :30  o'clock  a.m.,  in 
room  1318,  Dirksen  Senate  Office  Building,  Senator  James  O.  East- 
land, presiding. 

Also  present :  J.  G.  Sourwine,  chief  counsel ;  David  Martm,  senior 
analvst:  Ravmond  Siflv,  minority  counsel;  John  R.  Norpel,  Jr.,  re- 
search director;  and  Alfonso  Tarabochia,  chief  investigator. 

The  Chairman.  The  purpose  of  this  hearing  is  to  look  into  the  re- 
lated problems  of  international  drug  trafficking  and  passport  fraud— 
both  of  which  have  a  direct  bearing  on  the  internal  security  of  our 
country.  . 

It  is  my  understanding  that  the  testimony  this  mornms:  will  focus 
primarily,  but  not  exclusively,  on  the  activities  of  the  Brotherhood 
of  Eternal  Love,  an  organization  founded  by  Dr.  Timothy  Leary 
which  has  combined  a  mystical  fanaticism  with  criminal  activities, 
and  which  has  been  massively  involved  in  passport  fraud  and  in  the 
production,  smuggling,  and  distribution  of  various  drugs,  LSD,  and 
hashish  in  particular. 

The  Senate  Subcommittee  on  Internal  Security  held  extensive  hear- 
ings last  September  and  October.  1972,  on  the  international  drug 
traffic  and  its  impact  on  U.S.  security.  The  subcommittee  appointed 
Gen.  Lewis  W.  Walt,  retired  assistant  commandant  of  the  Marine 
Corps,  to  head  up  a  staff  investigation.  General  Walt's  investigation 
covered  some  20  countries,  and  the  report  which  he  made  to  the  sub- 
committee, I  think  it  is  fair  to  say,  played  a  major  role  in  bringing 
about  certain  structural  improvernents  in  our  national  drug  control 
machinery,  and  his  recommendations  are  closely  reflected  in  some  of 
the  legislation  now  pending  before  Congress. 

Our  hearings  last  vear  focused  primarily  on  the  heroin  epidemic, 
although  General  Walt's  report  did  deal  briefly  with  the  interrelated 
problems  of  cocaine,  hashish,  and  marihuana.  We  also  took  the  testi- 
monv  of  Dr.  Olav  Braenden.  the  distinarished  Director  of  the  U.N. 
Narcotics  Laboratory  in  Geneva,  on  the  current  status  of  cannabis 


In  today's  hearing  we  shall  be  dealing  with  the  past  activities  of 
Timothy  t^ary's  associates  as  the  prime  international  manufacturers 
and  distributors  of  LSD,  and  with  the  role  his  organization,  the 
Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love,  has  played  in  the  rapidly  expanding 
problems  of  hashish  smuggling  into  the  United  States. 

I  anticipate  that  this  hearing  will  provide  us  with  some  useful 
information  on  the  relationship  between  the  increasingly  widespread 
use  of  hashish  and  the  extensive  use  of  marihuana--which  is  really 
a  weaker  version  of  hashish — before  the  current  hashish  epidemic  got 

In  addition  to  establishing  the  basic  facts  about  the  rapidly  mush- 
rooming problem  of  passport  fraud,  it  is  my  hope  that  this  hearing 
will  also  i^roduce  certain  concrete  recommendations  pointing  to  im- 
provements in  passport  security. 

The  witnesses  we  have  with  us  today  are  divided  into  two  groups. 

From  the  Department  of  Justice,  we  have :  John  R.  Bartels,  Acting 
Administrator,  Drug  Enforcement  Administration ;  Gene  R.  Haislip, 
counsel.  Drug  Enforcement  Administration;  Lloyd  Sinclair,  group 
supervisor,  Drug  Enforcement  Administration;  and  Ernest  Donald 
Strange,  special  agent.  Drug  Enforcement  Administration. 

From  the  Passport  Office  of  the  Department  of  State,  we  have : 

Frances  G.  Knight,  Director,  Passport  Office,  Department  of  State; 
William  E.  Duggan,  Legal  Counsel.  Passport  Office  (in  charge  of 
investigation  of  passport  fraud  by  brotherhood  members)  ;  and  John 
O'Dowd,  Attorney-Advisor,  Legal  Division,  Passport  Office. 

I  want  to  thank  the  witnesses  for  coming. 

In  order  to  expedite  the  hearing,  I  would  like  to  ask  that  you  all 
rise  and  be  sworn  in  simultaneously. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  the 
subcommittee  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the 
truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  I  do. 

Mr.  Haislip.  I  do. 

Mr.  SixcLAiR.  I  do, 

Mr.  Straxge.  I  do. 

Miss  Knight.  I  do. 

Mr.  Duggan.  I  do. 

Mr.  O'Dowd.  I  do. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Mr.  Chairman,  we  will  begin,  if  it  is  agreeable  with 
you,  with  the  testimony  of  Mr.  John  R.  Bartels,  Jr.,  the  Acting  Ad- 
ministrator of  the  Drug  Enforcement  Administration  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Justice. 


Mr.  Bartels.  Thank  you,  Mr.  Chairman,  distinguished  members  of 
the  subcommittee. 

I  am  pleased  to  appear  before  you  this  morning  in  connection  with 
this  subcommittee's  continuing  investigation  into  the  illicit  drug  traf- 

lie.  In  addition  to  other  matters,  you  have  asked  that  we  inform  you 
of  the  particulai-s  of  our  investigation  of  a  drug-oriented  cult  known 
as  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love. 

This  is  one  of  the  most  fascinating  investigations  of  recent  years, 
and  I  have  brought  with  me  today  for  the  pur^wse  of  recounting  it, 
two  of  the  officers  who  were  responsible  for  its  success.  These  are  the 
gentlemen  on  my  left,  Mr.  Lloyd  Sinclair,  presently  a  group  super- 
visor in  our  Los  Angeles  Eegional  Office;  and  next  to  him.  Mr.  Donald 
Strange,  one  of  the  resourceful  agents  who  worked  under  Mr.  Sin- 
clair's direction.  I  would  also  like  at  this  time  to  recognize  Special 
Agents  Terry  Burke,  Douglas  Kuehl,  Gary  Elliot,  Donald  Monier, 
and  William"^  McKelvey,  who  also  played  an  important  role  in  this 
investigation,  although  they  could  not  be  with  us  today. 

To  avoid  any  subsequent  confusion  of  terminolog}-,  let  me  explain 
from  the  outset  that  these  gentlemen  were  at  the  time  of  this  investi- 
gation serving  within  the  former  BNDD.  This  agency  has  since  been 
merged  with  other  units  to  form  the  new  Drug  Enforcement  Adminis- 
tration, or  DEA,  which  I  now  head ;  and  this  more  current  means  of 
identifying  the  Federal  Government's  enforcement  arm  will  be  used 

Before  Mr.  Sinclair  begins  his  narrative,  I  would  like  first  to  deal 
with  some  of  the  broader  implications  of  the  case  about  which  you 
have  also  asked  to  hear.  In  many  ways,  the  evolution  of  the  drug 
trafficking  activities  of  the  members  of  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal 
Love  is  a  tragic  illustration  of  the  cynicism  into  which  the  youthful 
drug  revolution  of  the  mid-1960's  has  fallen.  It  also  underlines  the 
development  of  new  trends  in  the  drug  traffic  of  which  the  Nation 
np^ds  to  be  aware. 

The  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love  was  founded  on  the  basis  of 
Timothy  I^ary's  exhortations  to  "Tune  in,  turn  on.  and  drop  out"' 
with  LSD.  Leary's  preaching  consisted  of  a  combination  of  mysticism, 
the  use  of  dnigs,  and  the  disapproval  of  our  society  expressed  in  the 
phrases  of  rebellion  which  particularly  appeal  to  youth.  The  novelty 
of  his  doctrine  and  the  growing  drug  rebellion  in  general,  drew  con- 
siderable attention  from  the  press,  which  merely  extended  the  num- 
bers of  young  people  exposed  to  the  message.  Many  thousands  of 
teenagers  reacted  to  it  with  an  idealistic  and  religious  fer^'or. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  May  I  interrupt,  sir  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Is  that  perhaps  a  very  conservative  estimate?  Do 
you  think  it  would  be  an  exaggeration  to  suggest  that  at  the  height  of 
his  influence  Leary  may  have  had  as  many  as  a  million  of  our  young 
people  paying  attention  to  his  rantings  in  one  way  or  another? 

Mr.  Bartels.  Xo  ;  I  think  that  is  quite  right.  That  is  quite  possible. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Go  ahead,  sir. 

Mr.  Bartels.  Soon,  California  became  the  mecca  for  the  new 
"counter-culture;''  and  in  October  1966,  Leary,  with  many  of  his 
youthful  followers,  established  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love  as 
a  tax-exempt  religious  corporation  under  the  laws  of  that  State.  Al- 
though many  thousands  of  young  drug  abusers  were  in  the  Berkeley 
area  at  this  time,  the  brotherhood  was  an  exclusive  organization  to 
which  not  all  were  admitted.  High  echelon  brotherhood  members  were 
already  engaged  in  the  manufacture  and  distribution  of  LSD,  al- 

though  consideration  of  profits  was  probably  a  secondary  motive  in 
the  beginning.  In  time,  the  drug  activities  of  the  brotherhood  ex- 
panded and  evolved  new  patterns  of  illicit  traffic.  By  the  time  that 
our  investigation  reached  its  peak  in  the  spring  of  1973,  no  less  than 
750  of  its  members  had  been  positively  identified  as  participants  in 
criminal  activities  that  spanned  the  globe. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Do  you  have  a  figure  or  a  good  estimate  as  to  just 
how  many  active  members  of  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love  there 
were  at  the  peak  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  If  I  may,  I  would  refer  you  to  Mr.  Sinclair  but  I 
believe  it  is  around  3.000  or  so. 

Mr.  Sinclair.  That  is  correct,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Go  ahead,  sir. 

Mr.  Bartels.  During  the  late  1960's  when  the  abuse  of  LSD  began 
to  peak,  brotherhood  leaders  undertook  the  development  of  an  en- 
tirely new  trade  in  hashish.  This  is  one  of  the  stronger  forms  of 
marihuana — normally  about  10  times  more  potent  than  that  smuggled 
into  the  country  from  Mexico  for  the  manufacture  of  the  typical 
marihuana  cigarette.  Earlier,  in  the  debate  on  the  legalization  of 
marihuana.  Federal  drug  enforcement  authorities  warned  that  the 
marihuana  question  could  not  be  considered  from  the  standpoint  of 
only  the  milder  forms  of  the  drug  then  predominating  the  traffic.  They 
predicted  that  a  brisk  trade  in  hashish  was  bound  to  develop  from 
the  increased  demands  for  cannabis  products.  The  activities  of  the 
brotherhood  were,  in  large  part,  responsible  for  proving  the  accuracy 
of  this  prediction.  In  1968,  shortly  after  it  was  founded.  Federal  au- 
thorities seized  no  more  than  534  pounds  of  hashish.  By  1972,  this 
had  increased  to  a  figure  of  30,094  pounds. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Can  I  ask  a  question  here  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SoLTiwiXE.  Do  you  think  that  was  because  you  were  getting  a 
higher  proportion  of  the  total  traffic  or  was  the  traffic  increasing  in 
the  same  or  greater  proportion  to  your  seizures? 

Mr.  Bartels.  I  think  the  traffic  was  increasing  in  greater  proportion 
rather  than 

Mr.  SouRW^XE.  It  was  outrunning  your  enforcement  efforts. 

Mr.  Bartels.  That  is  right.  I  would  like  to  think  that  we  were  seiz- 
ing more  but  I  think  a  more  realistic  appraisal  is  that  that  traffic  was 
growing  tremendously. 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  Go  ahead.  Go  ahead,  sir. 

Mr.  Bartels.  At  some  point  late  in  1967  or  early  1968.  members  of 
the  brotherhood  developed  their  most  important  foreign  contact  for 
hashish.  According  to  subsequent  indictment,  this  was  the  Tokhi 
brothers  who  reside  in  Afghanistan  on  the  outskirts  of  Kabul,  its 
capital  city.  Brotherhood  smugglers  developed  elaborate  and  success- 
ful means  of  getting  the  hashish  into  the  Ignited  States.  One  of  their 
earlier  techniques  was  to  hide  quantities  of  15  to  20  pounds  of  the  drug 
within  the  interiors  of  fiberglass  surfboards  which  they  manufactured. 
This  was  soon  considered  too  small  a  quantity,  however,  and  they  grad- 
uated to  specially  designed  traps  in  Volkswagen  campers  or  other  ve- 
hicles which  could  hold  up  to  1,300  pounds  in  a  single  shipment. 

Their  mode  of  operation  placed  heavy  reliance  on  the  use  of  false 
passports;  and  with  their  financial  resources  and  false  documents,  they 

achieved  complete  international  mobility.  Dunno:  the  period  of  their 
successes,  we  have  estimated  on  the  basis  of  hard  intelligence  that 
approximately  24  tons  of  hashish  Avas  smiiofjrled  into  this  country. 
Although  most  of  this  drug  came  from  their  dealings  withm  Af- 
trhanistan.  we  also  know  that  shipments  were  brought  m  from  both 
Lebanon  and  India. 

Mr.  SouRwiXE.  Do  vou  mean  that  statement  to  be  exclusive,  that 
is,  that  the  only  places  it  came  from  were  Afghanistan,  Lebanon  and 
others  or  were  there  other  minor  sources  ?  i  •  i         i 

;Mr.  Bartels.  There  may  have  been  other  sources  of  which  we  have 
no  knowledge. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Thank  vou. 

Mr.  Bartels.  Moreover,  the  brotherhood  was  not  content  merely 
to  smuggle  and  market  hashish.  Under  the  guidance  of  one  of  its  chief 
chemists,  the  brotherhood  developed  the  manufacture  of  an  even  more 
potent  product  called  marihuana  or  hashish  oil.  In  the  course  of  our 
investigation,  six  such  hashish  oil  laboratories  were  seized. 

Mr.  Sourwixe.  Is  that  the  same  commodity  that  is  sometimes  re- 
ferred to  on  the  street  as  pot  oil  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  Yes.  sir. 

The  marihuana  product  resulting  from  their  operation  m  some 
cases  may  have  achieved  a  THC  content  of  up  to  90  percent. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  "Was  that 

Mr.  Bartels.  Tetrahydrocannabinol.  That  is  the  percent  of  the 
active  product  within  marihuana  which  gives  the— — 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  That  is  the  hallucinitory  drug  is  it  not  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  That  is  right,  and  in  normal  marihuana  it  would  run 
2  to  3  to  5  percent.  .    .  , 

Mr.  Soi-RwixE.  Ninety  percent  purity  is  extremely  high,  is  it  not  ( 

Mr.  Bartels.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  As  an  oil,  vou  cannot  get  it  much  higher,  can  you  i 

Mr.  Bartels.  I  do  not  believe  so.  We  have  never  seen  it  any  higher. 

A  typical  laboratorv  such  as  that  seized  at  Escanaba.  Mich.,  could 
produce  approximatelV  21/2  quarts  of  hashish  oil  per  day.  Normally, 
a  single  drop  placed  within  a  regular  cigarette  would  constitute  one 
dose,  and  approximately  15,000  doses  could  be  derived  in  this  way 

from  1  quart.  •    -r.  1  ■,  nnn 

Marihuana— or  hashish— oil  was  first  encountered  in  February  1972. 
Since  then  the  number  of  exhibits  received  has  increased  and  so  has 
the  potencv  as  measured  bv  the  i>ercentage  of  tetrahydrocannabinol 
(THC)  present.  During  fiscal  year  1973,  49.3  pounds  of  the  drug  were 
seized  with  an  average  THC  content  of  46  percent.  This  is  a  highly 
potent  and  concentrated  hallucinogenic  substance  which  can  be  manu- 
factured with  relatively  simple  equipment.  As  such,  it  must  be  regard- 
ed as  a  novel  and  threatening  shift  in  marihuana  abuse  which  should 
give  those  who  advocate  its  legalization  cause  to  re-think  their  posi- 

In  the  meantime,  they  continued  their  manufacture  and  distribution 
of  LSD  under  the  trade  name  of  "Orange  Sunshine."  Until  the  recent 
enforcement  successes,  this  product,  which  has  now  disappeared  en- 
tirelv.  was  found  in  quantitv  all  over  the  world. 

The  first  concentrated  effort  to  eliminate  this  clandestine  LSD  op- 
eration resulted  in  the  seizure  of  a  mobile  laboratory  facility  concealed 


inside  a  truck  in  Denver  in  1967  and  the  arrest  of  Xicholas  Sand. 
Reportedly,  this  was  the  most  productive  LSD  laboratory  in  the  west- 
em  United  States.  Unfortunately,  the  arrest  was  found  to  have  been 
legally  inadequate;  and  therefore,  the  case  against  Sand  had  to  be 
dropped.  Under  the  exclusionary  rule  of  evidence,  the  seized  labora- 
tory equipment  could  not  be  placed  in  evidence  and,  in  fact,  was  re- 
turned to  Sand. 

Almost  6  years  later,  some  of  the  same  laboratory  equipment,  still 
bearing  the  evidential  labels  applied  by  Federal  agents,  was  again 
seized  when  Sand's  laboratory  was  discovered  by  St.  Louis  police  in 
a  warehouse  which  had  been  leased  for  the  manufacture  of  LSD.  Sand 
had  moved  to  St.  Louis  because  of  the  mounting  police  pressure  being 
brought  to  bear  on  the  brotherhood  in  California  at  that  time. 

There  are  several  lessons  to  be  gained  from  this  investigation,  and 
I  should  like  to  mention  them  briefly,  although  not  necessarily  in 
order  of  importance. 

First,  this  case  has  taught  us  the  necessity  of  being  flexible  in  our 
enforcement  strategy  and  mode  of  operation.  For  many  years,  the 
concept  of  organized  crime  in  drugs  has  always  meant  the  Mafia,  or 
the  Cosa  Nostra,  or  the  Union  Corse — traditional  and  reasonably  well 
identified  criminal  groups  with  specific  ethnic  connotations.  The 
Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love  represents  one  of  the  new  recently- 
emerged  forms  of  organized  crime  totally  different  from  our  past 
notions  in  terms  of  membership,  motivations,  lifestyles,  and  drugs  of 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  You  mentioned  the  Mafia,  the  Cosa  Nostra  and 
Union  Corse.  Is  one  of  those  the  same  as  the  Unione  Siciliano  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  I  do  not  know.  I  get  frankly  confused,  Mr.  Chairman, 
over  the  extent  to  which  the  Siciliano  group  form  in  with  the  Mafia 
or  Italian  organized  crime.  They  overlap  and  the  history  of  it 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  It  is  our  understanding — I  would  like  to  be  cor- 
rected if  this  is  wrong  so  that  the  record  would  so  reflect— tliat  the 
Mafia  or  Cosa  Nostra  which  are  interchangeable  names  is  controlled, 
supposedly,  at  least  by  the  Unione  Siciliano  or  the  Union  Corse  is  a 
Corsican  branch  or  similar  Corsican  organization  which  is  smaller 
and  some  people  say  tougher. 

Mr.  Bartels.  That  is  right.  I  think  there  are  changes  now  within 
organized  crime  from  the  total  control  that  the  Sicilian  group  had  in 
its  origins  in  Italy  and  Sicily  as  opposed  to  the  people  who  have  now 
taken  over  some  of  these  families  and  have  been  born  in  the  United 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Go  ahead,  sir. 

Mr,  Bartels.  Increasingly,  this  new  form  of  organized  drug  traf- 
ficking activity  is  assuming  a  greater  role  in  the  enforcement  problems 
we  face.  In  the  end,  we  see  that  the  misguided  idealism  on  which  the 
brotherhood  was  first  conceived  finally  ijave  way  to  the  usual  criminal 
motivations  of  big  money  for  little  labor.  And,  although  their  drug 
activity  centered  at  first  around  LSD,  they  later  branched  out  to  in- 
clude hashish  and  finally  cocaine.  In  its  last  hour  of  activity,  the 
hard  narcotics  were  finally  seized  upon  as  offering  the  biggest  profit 
for  the  least  effort. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Pardon  me  for  continually  interrupting.  I  want  to 
make  these  points  as  they  occur.  You  say  "in  its  last  hour  of  activity". 
You  mean  this  entire  Leary  family  group  is  out  of  business  now? 

Mr.  Bartels.  I  will  let  Mr.  Sinclair  comment  on  that.  I  think  sub- 
stantially it  is  out  of  business,  is  that  not  correct  ? 

Mr.  Sot-RwixE.  It  is  good  news  if  it  is  true.  We  did  not  think  that 
was  tiiie. 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Severely  crippled. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Go  ahead,  sir. 

Mr.  Bartels.  A  second  aspect  with  important  lessons  for  our  tactical 
approach  to  the  drug  traffic  is  the  rapidity  with  which  the  brother- 
hood became  an  international  operation  capable  of  tapping  and  devel- 
oping illicit  drug  supplies  in  a  country  as  remote  as  Afghanistan.  The 
ease  with  which  false  passports  may  be  obtained  coupled  with  the  great 
cash  resources  which  the  group  possessed  and  the  availability  of  mod- 
ern jet  travel  made  it  not  only  possible,  but  likely,  that  the  effort  would 
be  made. 

For  the  last  several  veai-s.  we  have  concentrated  developing  our 
attack  on  the  illicit  drug  traffic  at  its  traditional  foreign  sources  in 
Turkey,  in  France,  and  in  Mexico.  The  events  in  Southeast  Asia 
demonstrated  the  potential  dangers  from  that  particular  area ;  and  the 
investigation  of  the  brotherhood  activities  proves  no  drug  producing 
area,  however  remote,  can  be  ignored  in  our  international  effort.  What 
the  brotherhood  was  able  to  accomplish  in  Afghanistan  with  regard 
to  hashish  could  as  easily  be  accomplished  with  regard  to  opium  and 

Without  the  assistance  which  our  foreign  offices  can  offer,  and  with- 
out a  mobility  and  flexibility  on  our  part  at  least  equal  to  that  of  crimi- 
nal organizations,  we  could  not  even  learn  of  the  criminal  activities  of 
such  groups  much  less  successfully  cope  with  them.  In  the  instant  c_ase, 
our  agent  in  Kabul  plaved  a  major  role  in  coordinating  the  investiga- 
tion with  the  California-based  task  force.  Our  offices  around  the  world 
must  be  able  to  develop  and  exchange  intelligence  information  rapidly 
so  as  to  identify  violatoi-s  and  make  them  targets  of  police  activity.  Our 
agents  must  further  have  the  capability  of  using  this  information  and 
moving  rapidly  throughout  the  world  to  put  it  to  use.  For  example,  in 
pursuit  of  the  brotherhood  investigation,  DEA  agents  traveled  to 
Paris,  Kabul,  Costa  Rica,  Mexico  City,  Belgium,  and  Honduras  as 
well  as  traveling  extensivelv  within  the  United  States. 

One  of  the  particulars  inVhich  DEA  will  differ  from  its  predecessor 
agencies  is  in  the  increased  emphasis  which  we  intend  to  place  on 
the  development  of  intelligence  as  the  second  operational  arm  of  our 
enforcement  efforts. 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  One  more  interruption,  if  I  may.  This  mobility 
and  ability  to  act  is  going  to  require  agreements  for  cooperation  with 
a  great  many  other  governments,  is  it  not  ? 
Mr.  Bartels.  Yes,  it  will. 

Mr.  SouRWTXE.  The  work  of  negotiating  those  agreements  is  under- 
way now? 
Mr.  Bartels.  Yes,  it  is. 

Mr.  SouR^vixE.  That  is  really  another  subject.  I  do  not  want  to 
push  you  into  it  but  I  thought  we  needed  some  mention  of  it  here. 
Mr'  Bartels.  I  think  vou  are  100  percent  right.  We  now  will  have 

65  foreign  offices  in  49  countries  which  is  a  tremendous  growth  rate 

over  the  past  several  years. 


Mr.  SouRWiNE.  I  also  had  one  other  question  at  this  point.  You 
mentioned  the  ease  with  which  false  passports  may  be  secured.  You 
are  referring  to  U.S.  passports? 

Mr.  Bartels.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SouR\viNE.  When  you  say  false  passports,  do  you  mean  out- 
right forgeries  or  do  you  mean  actual  passports  which  are  obtained 
by  persons  under  false  names  or  through  false  pretenses? 

Mr.  Bartels.  The  latter. 

Mr.  SouRWTNE.  Wlien  you  say  false  passports  you  do  not  mean 
forgeries.  You  mean  U.S.  passports  issued  to  people  other  than  those 
they  purport  to  cover. 

Mr.  Bartels.  Yes,  sir.  That  is  what 

Mr.  SoTJRWiNE.  Or  obtained  by  an  actual  person  through  false 

Mr.  Bartels.  Yes. 

Mr.  SoTjRWiNE.  Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Bartels.  Finally,  this  case  illustrates  the  inadequacies  of  exist- 
ing criminal  justice  procedures  in  coping  with  contemporary  high-level 
drug  violators.  Of  the  top  12  organizers  of  the  brotherhood's  activities, 
six  continue  to  be  fugitives  from  justice  living  on  their  ill-gotten  wealth 
in  foreign  countries  where  additional  enterprises  can  be  planned.  Worst 
of  all,  two  of  these  were  successfully  arrested  but  were  able  to  post 
bonds,  whereupon  they  promptly  fled  the  jurisdiction.  Another  brother- 
hood member  was  rearrested  on  three  subsequent  occasions  and  finally 
fled  after  forfeiting  bonds  totaling  $125,000. 

In  the  more  limited  case  of  heroin  trafficking,  we  have  asked  the  Con- 
gress to  consider  imposition  of  new  restraints  on  the  granting  of  bail. 
We  recognize  the  caution  which  must  be  exercised  to  safeguard  con- 
stitutional rights,  but  we  have  offered  new  formulas  for  pretrial  deten- 
tion which  we  feel  strike  a  balance  between  the  necessitv  to  protect  the 
public  and  the  rights  of  accused  persons.  This  law  was  introduced  by 
the  chairman  of  this  subcommittee  and  other  distinguished  members 
of  the  Judiciary  Committee,  and  we  recommend  it  as  an  appropriate 
starting  point  from  which  to  consider  the  problem. 

I  would  like  to  turn  now  to  Mr.  Llovd  Sinclair  who  will  provide  you 
with  an  account  of  the  particulars  of  this  investigation.  I  hope  that  you 
will  keep  in  mind  throughout  his  account,  that  the  successes  he  de- 
scribes were  not  those  of  DEA  alone,  but  were  the  results  of  the  efforts 
of  many  State  and  local  officers  and  Federal  agencies,  particularly 
the  Department  of  State,  which  cooperated  in  numerous  false  pass- 
port investigations  of  brotherhood  members.  We  shall  then  be  pleased 
to  respond  to  whatever  questions  you  may  have.  Special  Agent  Donald 
Strange  will  also  assist  in  answering  any  detailed  questions  concem- 
inar  the  conduct  of  the  investigation. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Sir,  before  Mr.  Sinclair  begins  his  statement,  I  have 
a  number  of  questions  I  want  to  ask.  I  have  no  reason  to  insist  that 
you  answer  them,  but  may  I  ask  you  while  you  are  here? 

Mr.  Bartels.  Certainly. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  If  you  want  to  field  them,  do  so;  and  if  you  want  to 
pass  them  to  one  of  your  experts,  do  so. 

Wien  you  speak  of  the  Department  of  State  cooperatinsr  in  nu- 
merous false  passport  investigations,  what  division  or  branch  of  the 

State  Department  were  vou  referring  to?  Do  you  mean  the  Passport 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Security, 

Mr.  SouRwiXE.  You  mean  the  Bureau  of  Security? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Xo,  no.  Within  the  Department  of  State. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  The  Office  of  Security? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Ri^ht. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Within  the  Department  of  State. 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Yes. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  l^Hio  heads  that  ? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  I  do  not  know. 

Mr.  Strange.  ]\f  r.  Hibbard  Lamkin  was  the  special  agent  in  charge 
in  Los  Angeles,  whom  we  worked  through  initially.  He  has  since  re- 

]Mr.  SouRwiNE.  You  are  talking  about  cooperation  at  the  local  level 
rather  than  at  the  Washington  level. 

Mr.  Strange.  Yes,  sir,  but  at  one  point  in  time  we  called  direct  to 
the  State  Department  in  Washington  when  we  had  reason  to  believe 
that  one  of  the  brotherhood  members  was  using  a  fraudulent  pass- 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Who  did  you  talk  with  there  ? 

Mr.  Strange.  I  do  not  recall.  It  was  primarily  another  agent's  re- 
sponsibility. He  maintained  liaison  with  a  member  of  the  State  De- 
partment in  Washington.  He  spoke  with  him  almost  on  a  day-to-day 

Mr.  SouRwiNE,  Over  quite  a  period  of  time  ? 

Mr,  Strange,  Yes.  sir, 

Mr,  SoTJRwiNE,  Did  you  get  the  information  you  were  telephoning 
for  over  a  period  of  time  ? 

Mr,  Strange,  Yes,  sir.  When  documents  that  were  obtained  in  either 
a  search  or  through  informant  information  gave  us  the  idea  that  pos- 
sibly one  of  these  brotherhood  members  was  using  an  assumed  name, 
we  would  run  that  name  through  the  passport  section  and  see  if  they 
had  an  application  on  file  for  the  member  under  that  name,  and  quite 
often  they  did, 

Mr,  SouRwiNE,  Now,  it  may  be  that  I  am  here  anticipating  some- 
thing that  one  of  your  men  plans  to  cover,  and  if  so.  I  have  no  objec- 
tion to  deferring  the  question.  But  let  us  run  through  these  and  then 
go  ahead  with  the  director's  statement, 

Dr,  Leary  had  a  rather  openhanded  acceptance  by  the  media  or  cer- 
tain areas  of  our  media  of  public  information,  did  he  not? 

Mr,  Barteis,  Yes,  he  did, 

Mr,  SouRwiNE.  I  remember  two  major  interviews  with  I^ary  in 
Playboy  magazine,  for  instance.  Was  this  access  to  the  press  and  to  a 
somewhat  lesser  but  still  substantial  degree  the  airwaves,  of  any 
substantial  or  even  critical  importance  in  enabling  Leary  to  increase 
his  influence  ? 

Mr,  Bartels,  In  my  opinion,  it  was,  and  I  would  ask  Mr,  Sinclair 
if  he  would  not  confirm  that, 

Mr,  Sinclair,  Yes.  absolutely, 

INIr,  SouRwiNE,  Was  Leary  himself  ever  arrested  for  trafficking  in 
drugs  ? 


ISIr.  Bartels.  Yes,  he  was. 

Do  you  know  his  record  ?  I  know  he  was  in  Texas  once. 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Yes,  that  was  Customs. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Do  you  plan  to  cover  that  ? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Not  the  Texas  incident,  but  we  do  plan  to  cover  an- 
other aspects  of  his 

Mr.  SouR\vaNE.  Would  it  be  out  of  order  to  tell  us  about  the  Texas 
incident  now  ? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  I  am  not  specifically  familiar  with  it.  I  recall  he 
crossed  the  border  at  Texas,  I  believe,  with  his  daughter,  and  they 
were  arrested  at  that  time. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  When — may  I  ask  you  cover  the  Texas  incident  fully 
when  you  correct  the  record  either  at  this  point  or  any  other  place 
you  think  it  will  fit  best. 

Mr.  Sinclair.  We  would  be  happy  to. 

[The  material  referred  to  follows :] 

Dr.  Timothy  Leary  was  arrested  by  a  U.S.  Customs  oflBcial  in  possession  of  a 
small  quantity  of  marihuana  at  Laredo,  Tex.,  on  December  22,  1965.  The  facts 
of  the  case  are  as  follows : 

Dr.  Timothy  Leary  left  New  York  on  December  20,  1965,  by  automobile, 
accompanied  by  his  two  children,  Susan,  age  18,  and  John,  age  16,  and  two 
other  persons.  Their  destination  was  Yucatan,  Mexico,  and  the  alleged  purpose 
of  the  trip  was  a  Christmas  vacation  for  the  Leary  children  and  to  provide 
Dr.  Leary  the  opportunity  to  write  a  book  and  to  prepare  for  a  summer 
session  to  be  conducted  with  a  research  group  at  his  home  in  Millbrook,  New 
York.  On  December  22,  1965,  Dr.  Leary  and  the  four  passengers  drove  across  the 
international  boundary  at  Laredo,  Texas,  into  the  Republic  of  Mexico,  stopped 
at  the  Mexican  immigration  station  for  several  minutes,  and  turned  back 
toward  the  United  States.  At  approximately  6:45  p.m.,  they  arrived  at  the 
secondary  inspection  area.  Laredo  International  Bridge.  Laredo.  Texas.  Dr.  I^ary, 
the  driver  of  the  vehicle,  told  a  U.S.  Customs  oflScial  that  they  had  driven  across 
the  boundary  into  Mexico  within  the  prior  hour,  that  they  had  been  unable  to 
secure  tourist  permits  and  had  b^en  told  by  Mexican  immigration  officials  to 
return  the  following  morning  at  8:00  am.  at  which  time  the  necessary  Mexican 
permits  would  be  given  to  them. 

The  U.S.  inspector  asked  the  group  if  they  had  anvthing  to  declare  from 
Mexico  and  was  told  that  they  had  not.  After  the  occupants  alighted  from  the 
vehicle,  the  U.S.  inspector  observed  some  vegetable  material  and  a  seed  on  the 
floor  of  the  automobile  which  appeared  to  him  to  be  marihuana.  Thus  the  five 
travelers  were  arrested.  A  search  of  the  baggage,  the  vehicle  and  of  the  individ- 
uals was  made.  Sweepings  from  the  car  floor  and  glove  compartment  were  later 
proved  to  be  marihuana.  While  Dr.  Leary  was  being  searched,  he  stated  that  he 
had  never  used  marihuana.  A  woman  Customs  inspector  performed  a  personal 
search  of  the  two  female  travelers,  which  resulted  in  the  finding  of  a  small 
metal  container  on  the  person  of  Susan  T>eary  after  she  had  disrobed.  Within 
the  container  were  three  partially  smoked  marihuana  cig.irettes,  a  small  quantity 
of  serai-refined  marihuana  and  capsules  of  detroamphetamine  .sulfate.  Demand 
was  made  of  Dr.  Leary  for  the  required  Treasury  Department  transferee  form. 
He  stated  that  he  had  no  such  form.  Susan  Leary.  in  response  to  the  same 
demand,  refused  to  make  any  .statement.  Dr.  Leary  admitted  to  a  U.S.  Customs 
Agent  that  the  metal  box  taken  from  his  daughter.  Susan,  containing  the  mari- 
huana was  his  property. 

Dr.  Timothy  Leary  and  his  minor  daughter  were  jointly  indicted  on  three 
pounts  pertainine  to  marihuana.  Dr.  Leary  was  tried  before  a  jury  on  Maroh  11. 
1969.  Count  1.  which  charged  the  smucrgliuET  of  marihuana  into  the  United  States 
which  should  have  been  invoiced  (declared),  was  dismissed  by  the  court. 
Dr.  Learv  was  found  guilty,  however,  on  Count  2.  which  charged  transj>ortation. 
and  facilitation  of  transportation,  and  concealment  of  marihuana  after  im- 
portation, in  violation  of  21  U.S.C.  176a,  and  on  Count  3,  which  charged  trans- 
portation and  concealment  of  marihuana  bv  defendants  as  transferees,  required 
to  pay  the  transfer  tax  in  ^^olation  of  26  U.S.C.  4744  (a)  (2).  Dr.  Ijearv 
sentenced  to  the  maximum  penalties  and  fines  provided  for  such  offenses,  subject 


however,  to  the  provisions  of  18  U.S.C.  4208(b),  and  was  ordered  committed  to 
the  medical  center  at  Springfield.  Missouri,  for  a  complete  study  to  be  used  bv 
the  court  as  a  basis  for  determining  the  ultimate  sentence  in  the  case. 

Susan  Leary  was  tried  at  the  same  time  as  her  father.  Dr.  Leary,  by  the 
court  without  a  jury  (trial  by  jury  having  been  waivetl)  and  found  guilty  on 
Count  .3  of  the  indictment  but  not  guilty  on  Counts  1  and  2.  Imposition  of 
sentence  was  suspended  and  she  was  placed  on  probation  during  the  remainder 
of  her  minoritv.  without  supervision,  under  the  provisions  of  the  Youth  Corrup- 
tions Act.  18  U.S.C.  5010  (a). 

Dr.  Leary  appealed  his  conviction  on  Counts  2  and  3  to  the  Court  of  Appeals 
for  the  Fifth  Circuit  which  aflSrmed  the  lower  courts  findings. 

Dr.  Leary  then  jietitioned  to  the  Supreme  Court  and  the  Supreme  Court  agreed 
to  con.sider  two  questions:  (1)  whether  petitioner's  conviction  for  failing  to 
comply  with  the  tran.sfer  provisions  of  the  Marihuana  Tax  Act  violated  his 
Fifth  Amendment  privilege  against  self-incrimination;  (2)  whether  petitioner 
was  denied  due  process  by  the  application  of  the  part  of  21  U.S.C.  176a  which 
provides  that  a  defendant's  possession  of  marihuana  shall  be  deemed  suflicient 
evidence  that  the  marihuana  was  illegally  imported  or  brought  into  the  United 
States,  and  that  the  defendant  knew  of  the  illegal  importation  or  bring  in, 
unless  the  defendant  explains  his  possession  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  jury. 

On  May  19,  1969.  the  Supreme  Court  held  in  favor  of  the  petitioner  (Dr. 
Leary)    on  both  issues  and  reversed  the  judgement  of  the  Court  of  Appeals. 

Mr.  SorRWiXE.  Would  voii  say  it  is  true  the  role  T^earv  played  was 
that  of  an  ideological  trafficker,  whether  or  not  he  was  himself  selling 

Mr.  Bartels.  Definitely. 

Mr.  SixcLAiR.  Absolutely. 

Mr.  SouRAvixE.  He  was  responsible  for  hooking  more  young  people, 
if  I  mav  use  that  term,  than  a  g-ood  many  pushers. 

Mr.  Bartels.  That  is  my  opinion. 

Mr.  Soi'RwixE.  Because  of  his  acceptance  and  the  access  he  had 
through  the  media  to  the  minds  of  these  voung  folks. 

Mr.  Bartels.  Developing  the  subculture  which  advocated  the  use 
of  drugs. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Now,  you  gave  us  some  figures  about  seizures.  I  do 
not  remember  precisely.  What  was  the  figure  for  hashish  seizures  in 
1968  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  534  pounds. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  And  in  1972  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  30,094  pounds. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Did  you  have  any  one  big  or  possibly  lucky  seizure 
in  1972  that  would  increase  that  figure,  or  is  that  the  result  of  a  steady 
year-by-year  progression  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  It  is  larsfely  a  steady  year-by-year  progression.  We 
had  one  seizure  which  I  believe  was  1.300  pounds  which  was  the 
largest  in  the  historv.  I  mav  add  that  we  had  a  seizure  2  weeks  asfo  of 
almost  900  ]:)Ounds.  But  that  shows  what  an  extremely  large  seizure 
would  be. 

Mr.  SorRwixE.  But  your  1.300  pound  seizure  was  not  any  bigger  part 
of  the  30.000  poimds  seized  in  1972  than  vour  largest  seizure  was  of  the 
534  pounds  in  1968. 

Mr.  Bartels.  That  is  cori-ect.  For  instance,  the  figures,  if  I  may, 
.show  this  sort  of  a  progression.  In  1968.  as  I  stated,  there  were  534 
pounds.  In  1969,  2,247  pounds.  In  1970,  7,256  pounds.  In  1971,  22,188 
pounds.  And  as  I  said,  in  1972,  30,094  pounds. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  What  is  vour  total  so  far  this  vear  ? 

Mr.  B.-vrtels.  Through  June,  from  January  of  1973  through  June  30, 
1973,  we  have  11,150  pounds  of  hashish. 


Mr.  SouRwiNE.  You  are  behind  the  1972  rate,  then. 
Mr.  Bartels.  Yes,  we  are  slightly. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Is  that  because  the  traffic  has  dropped  off  or  because 
you  have  been  denied  the  force  you  need  or  for  what  reason  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  I  am  not  sure  really  at  this  early  date.  We  may  make 
it  up.  It  may  be  also  that  there  is  a  feeling  among  the  youth  to  turn 
to  other  drugs.  I  think  it  is  a  little  early  to  say. 

Mr.  SouRw^ixE.  Can  you  give  us  any  reasonable  estimate  of  the 
amount  of  hashish  that  has  been  entering  this  country  undetected? 
Obviously,  you  would  not  have  a  statistic  on  it  but  do  you  have  esti- 
mates on  it  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  No.  Nothing  really  reliable. 

Mr.  SomwixE.  You  told  me  that  in  your  opinion,  the  traffic  had 
gone  up  faster  than  your  seizures  had  gone  up,  so  you  must  have  some 
kind  of  an  estimate.  Do  you  have  an  estimate  of  total  traffic  year  by 
year  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  We  do  not  because  we  do  not  know  how  efficient  we 
are  in  making  seizures,  whether  we  are  seizing  10  percent,  5  percent, 
20  percent,  25  percent.  But  we  know  that  at  the  borders  the  nature 
of  this  traffic  is  such  and  the  borders  are  so  open  and  wide  that  we 
are  not  seizing  what  we  would  hope  to,  and  a  great  deal  comes  in.  If 
we  are  seizina;  20  percent  of  it  perhaps  we  are  doing  pretty  well.  And, 
of  course,  it  is  more  difficult  once  you  get  into  hashish  oil  which  does 
not  involve  as  cumbersome  a  shinment  as  marihuana. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Would  you  have  any  instrument  of  the  confirmed 
hashish  imports  of  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love  which  eluded 
detection  of  Customs  and  other  law  enforcement  agencies  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  Let  me  refer  to  Mr.  Sinclair  on  that.  I  think  we  said 
24  tons,  did  we  not  ? 

Mr.  Haislip.  Yes.  That  is  a  total,  and  all  of  that  is  based  on  what  we 
would  call  hard  intelligence  from  identifiable  sources.  And  this  is  due 
just  to  the  activities  of  the  brotherhood. 

Mr.  SouRwixE,  They  brought  in  24  tons  in  your  opinion,  over  what 
period  of  years  ? 

Mr.  Haislip.  1968  to  the  present. 

Mr.  SixclAir.  During  that  time  we  seized  approximately  6,000 
pounds  so  that  means  approximately  44,000. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Well,  you  must  have  seized — you  mean  from  them. 

Mr.  Straxge.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  6.000  pounds.  That  is  3  tons. 

Mr.  Bartels.  Out  of  24  which  is  about  a  12-percent  seizure  rate. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  12,  I21/2. 

Mr.  Bartels.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Do  you  think  you  are  getting  that  much  generally 
over  the  whole  traffic  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  I  do  not  know  how  I  can  estimate  that. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  You  have  not  worked  the  whole  traffic  as  intensively 
as  you  worked  the  brotherhood,  have  you  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  No. 

Mr.  Haislip.  I  think  it  would  be  fair  to  note,  too.  that  in  the  last 
year  or  two  of  the  activity  with  regard  to  the  brotherhood  members, 
probably  increasingly  large  amounts  of  their  hashish  was  seized  be- 


cause  of  the  attention  given  to  them.  At  first  none  of  it  was  seized.  It 
was  all  getting:  thronorh. 

Mr.  SorRwixE.  You  do  not  have  any  estimate  of  what  they  are 
handlinof.  brino^ing  in  and  peddling  now. 

Mr.  Haislip.  Not  any  reliable  figure. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  You  have  not  quit  working  on  them  yet,  have  you? 

Mr.  Bartels.  No.  We  have  not  totally  quit  working  on  them. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Can  you  give  us  a  figure  on  Avhat  hashish  sells  for 
wholesale  in  the  United  States? 

Mr.  Bartels.  I  will  defer  to  Mr.  Sinclair  on  that. 

Mr.  SixcLAiR.  It  depends  on  how  much  you  are  talking  about.  The 
standard  price  that  we  see  and  recognize  is  $900  a  povmd. 

]Mr.  SouRwixE.  And  that  is  a  good  deal  less  than  it  costs  when  you 
sell  by  the  paper,  is  it  not  ? 

Mr.  SixcLAiR.  Or  by  the  ounce.  You  can  break  it  up  by  the  bag  and 
sell  it  at  $100  an  ounce.  That  would  realize  $1,600  a  pound  but  when 
you  think  that  it  only  costs  $15  a  pound  in  Afghanistan,  that  is  a  sub- 
stantial increase  in  profit. 

]Mr.  SoTJRWixE.  Everybody  gets  his  cut. 

That  retail  price,  then,  is"  about  $1,600  a  pound,  $100  an  ounce. 

Mr.  SixcLAiR.  Yes. 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  "What  is  the  average  strength  of  the  hashish  sold  in 
this  country  ? 

Mr.  Haislip.  I  have  a  figure  on  that  based  on  the  reports  of  our 
laboratories.  Over  a  period  of  time  they  found  that  the  variations  were 
great,  but  that  the  average  strength' of  hashish  contained  approxi- 
mately 10  percent  THC  and  that  for  the  marihuana  or  hashish  oil,  the 
average  was  approximately  46  percent  THC. 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  And  then  this  real  high  strength  pot  oil  you  told  us 
about  that  ran  90  percent  was  nine  times  as  strong  as  the  average. 

Mr.  Haislip.  For  hashish,  yes. 

Mr.  Bartels.  That  is  right. 

INIr.  SouRWixE.  So  that,  although  you  said  that  the  usual  dose  of 
the  oil  was  one  drop  to  a  normal  cigarette,  actually  that  will  produce 
a  strength  21/2  or  3  times  as  much  as  an  ordinary  marihuana  joint, 
will  it  not  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  Yes. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  How  much  hashish  would  the  average  person  have 
to  ingest  in  order  to  develop  a  real  hashish  high  ? 

Mr.  Sixclair.  A  gram  or  two,  I  believe.  The  size  of  a  pencil  eraser, 
a  gram  or  two, 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Now,  what  percentage  of  this  $100  an  ounce  would 
that  be  ? 

Mr.  Sixclair.  A  small  part  of  it,  sir.  There  are  approximately  30 
grams  in  an  ounce. 

Mr.  Son?wixE.  If  a  man  buys  an  ounce  of  it  for  $100,  does  he  have 
a  hundred  highs  ? 

Mr.  SixcLAre.  No.  Probably  around  30.  That  would  be  an  average 
and  that  could  vary  up  and  down  depending  on  the  individual. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  "Was  it  the  brotherhood  which  invented  or  first  de- 
veloped hashish  oil  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  Yes,  I  think  that  is  right.  It  was  Sand,  was  it  not  ? 
Mr,  Sixclair.  No.  Another  brotherhood  member. 

23-53S  0—73- 


Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Is  any  other  organization  producing  it  now  that  yo" 
know  of  ? 

Mr.  SixcLAiR.  There  must  be.  yes. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  In  other  words,  you  do  not  know  who  but  you  know 
there  is  production  other  than  the  brotherhood  production. 

Mr.  Sinclair.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  You  raised  the  question  of  who  in  the  brotherhood 
was  responsible  for  the  development  of  hashish  oil.  Do  you  want  to 
put  that  name  in  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  According  to  our  best  intelligence  sources  it  is  Ronald 
Hadley  Stark. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Getting  back  to  this  business  of  a  dose  of  one  drop 
in  a  cigarette — if  he  puts  two  drops  in  the  cigarette,  he  has  for  prac- 
tical purpose  got  a  serious  overdose,  has  he  not  ? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Again,  I  think  that  depends  on  the  individual. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Thpre  is  a  tolerance  that  develops? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  I  do  not  know  if  it  is  a  tolerance  but  you  never  know 
exactly  how  concentrated  the  THC  or  the  hashish  oil  that  you  happen 
to  be  using  is. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Well,  suppose  you  take  45  percent  which  is  half  of  the 
maximum  the  brotherhood  was  able  to  arrive  at.  And  suppose  a  man 
gets  eight  drops  which  is  about  what,  half  a  teaspoonful  ?  \Vhat  does  it 
do  ?  Put  him  out  ?  Kill  him  ?  Affect  his  brain  seriously  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  We  don't  know.  It  will  affect  his  brain  seriously  but 
I  think  it  is  new  enough,  hashish  oil,  that  we  do  not  know  what  it  will 

Mr.  Sourwine.  It  might  seriously  affect  the  brain  permanently. 

Mr.  Bartels.  That  is  possible. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Are  any  experiments  being  made  along  this  line  to 
determine  tolerance  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  Not  to  my  knowledge. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Is  anybody  making  experiments  alons:  this  line  with 
animals  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  I  do  not  know. 

Mr.  Haislip.  I  think  the  National  Institute  of  Mental  Health  has 
fjome  research  grants  in  this  area  but  we  would  not  be  able  to  answer 
for  what  they  are  doing  in  the  field. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  The  FDA  would  not  be  working  on  it  because  it  is 
not  being  offered  in  the  market  legally. 

Mr.  Haislip.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Some  of  the  evidence  that  this  subcommittee  took 
last  year,  about  a  year  ago.  suggests  that  there  is  a  direct  tie-in  be- 
tween hashish  smoking  and  marihuana  smoking.  What  would  your 
opinion  be  on  this?  Does  the  marihuana  smoking  lead  to  the  use  of 
hashish  in  any  degree? 

Mr.  Bartels.  I  think  the  two  are  interchangeable. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Interchangeable.  Not  a  matter  of  movement  from 
the  man  who  smokes  a  joint  to  the  man  who  smoke  hashish.  It  is  back 
and  forth. 

Mr.  Bartels.  I  think  it  can  lead  up.  In  other  words,  the  hashish  be- 
ing more  potent,  more  reliable,  is  more  sou""ht  after  bv  the  confirmed 
and  experienced  marihana  smoker  who  frequently  is  dissatisfied  with 


the  2  percent  THC  when  he  can  get  higher,  So  I  would  think  yes, 
it  can  lead  to  it 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Before  we  get  through  I  would  like  to  cover  for 
the  record  the  connection  of  Leary  with  William  Mellon  Hitchcock, 
the  multimillionaire  Avho  permitted  Leary  to  continue  his  experimen- 
tation with  LSD  on  the  Hitchcock  farm  in  Dutchess  County,  N.Y. 
Do  you  want  to  go  into  that  now  or  leave  it  for  one  of  the  other  men 
with  you  to  offer  ? 

Mr.  B ARTELS.  That  is  sub  judice  right  now. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  It  will  be  covered  in  a  later  statement.  All  right. 

Is  the  equipment  for  the  preparation  or  production  of  hashish 
oil  extensive  or  expensive  ? 

Mr.  Haislip.  We  have  some  photographs  for  the  record  that  we 
have  offered  that  will  illustrate  a  typical  laboratory. 

Mr.  SouRwaxE.  That  is,  it  will  be  offered. 

Mr.  Haislip.  It  is  being  offered  now. 

Mr.  Bartels.  I  will  be  happy  to  offer  them. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  That  is  fine. 

Mr.  Chairman,  may  these  be  received  ? 

The  Chairman.  They  will  be  received. 

Mr.  Bartels.  May  I  offer  to  you  two  photographs,  one  revealing 
a  marihuana  or  hashish  oil  laboratory  seized  in  Escanaba,  Mich.,  and 
the  other  being  the  brotherhood  "Orange  Sunshine"  LSD  laboratory 
in  St.  Louis,  Mo.  ? 

[The  photographs  referred  to  follow :] 


Marihuana  or  Hashish  Oil  Laboratory,  Escanaba,  Mich. 


Brotherhood  "Orange  Sunshine"  LSD  Laboratory,  St.  Louis,  Mo. 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  I  am  not  a  laboratory  technician  or  expert  and  un- 
able to  tell  from  looking  at  one  of  these  but  it  does  not  look  as  though 
the  equipment  is  very  expensive.  Do  you  have  a  conclusion  in  that 
regard  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  It  is  very  inexpensive. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Very  inexpensive. 

Mr.  Bartels.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwiXE.  When  you  talk  about  hashish  oil,  does  that  mean 
it  can  only  be  prepared  from  hashish  or  can  it  be  distilled  from  simple 

Mr.  Bartels.  From  crude  marihuana  as  well. 

Mr.  SouRwix'E.  Marihuana  and  hashish  are  different  versions  of  the 
cannabis  plant. 

Mr.  Bartels.  That  is  right,  a  different  process. 

Mr.  Sourwix'e.  And  the  hashish  oil  that  you  get  from  one  in  an  equal 
degree  of  concentration  would  be  just  the  same  as  what  you  get  from 
the  other  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  Yes,  sir. 


Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Does  hashish  oil  have  the  characteristic  cannabis 
odor  so  that  it  can  be  detected  by  your  trained  dogs  that  are  used  by 
the  Customs  and  Post  Office  Departments  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  I  defer  to  Mr.  Strange  on  that.  Do  you  know? 

Mr.  Haislip.  I  think  in  most  cases  the  oil  would  be  sealed  in  a 
container  in  any  case  which  would  probably  make  it  less  subject  to  that 
type  of  discovery  because  it  would  be  tightly  sealed. 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Usually  in  glass  vials. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Do  you  know  whether  the  oil  has  a  similar  aroma 
or  flavor  when  put  in  a  cigarette  or  smoked  to  what  you  would  get  if 
you  used  marihuana? 

Mr.  Haislip.  The  best  report  we  have  on  that  is  that  it  is  not  as 
easily  detectable  and  that  is  just  a  street  report. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  I  have  no  more  questions  at  this  time.  Do  you  want 
to  go  ahead  ?  Mr.  Sinclair  next  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Thank  you. 

Mr.  Chairman,  distinguished  members  of  the  subcommittee,  to  the 
agents  who  participated  in  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love  investi- 
gation, it  was  not  just  another  routine  case.  For  nearly  a  year  and  a 
half,  we  felt  the  pulse  of  what  has  come  to  be  realized  as  one  of  the 
largest  and  most  complex  drug  systems  in  the  history  of  this  country's 
narcotic  law  enforcement  efforts. 

Possibly  you  might  ask:  Are  these  notorious  international  traf- 
fickers from  Italy.  Mexico,  or  Turkey,  or  from  the  Golden  Triansfle  in 
Southeast  Asia?  No.  gentlemen,  the  great  majority  of  these  violators 
are  from  California;  but,  our  story  does  not  beerin  there.  Although 
no  one  knew  it  at  the  time,  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love  began 
with  Dr.  Timothy  Francis  Leary  at  Harvard  University  in  1963. 

It  was  in  1963  that  Dr.  Leary  was  fired  from  his  post  at  Harvard  as 
a  result  of  his  experimentation  with  LSD.  He  soon  found  a  friend  in 
multimillionaire.  "William  Mellon  Hitchcock,  and  was  allowed  to  con- 
tinue his  experimentation  with  LSD  from  Hitchcock's  4.000-acre 
estate  in  Millbrook,  a  quiet  community  in  Dut^'hess  County,  N.Y. 

From  1963  to  1966.  Dr.  Timothy  Leary  planted  the  seeds  of  "mysti- 
cism through  drufifs"  in  the  minds  of  countless  thousands  of  vovmsr 
Americans.  Even  Dr.  Leary  never  realized  the  f ruitfulness  of  his  crop 
or  the  international  ramifications  of  its  harvest. 

From  Millbrook,  Dr.  Leary  traveled  to  Berkeley.  Calif.,  and  from 
Berkelev  to  a  small  city  in  southern  California  called  Laguna  Beach. 
This  village-type  community  was  soon  to  become  the  psychedelic  drug 
capital  of  the  world. 

In  October  1966,  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love  became  a  lecral 
corporation  in  the  State  of  California.  The  brotherhood  was  also 
granted  a  tax-exempt  status  on  the  basis  that  it  claimed  to  be  a  reli- 
gious organization. 

The  brotherhood  was  heavily  drug  oriented.  From  its  inception,  in 
addition,  intelligence  indicates  that  the  group  was  ceremoniouslv  prac- 
ticing group  sexual  freedom  in  connection  with  the  use  of  drugs. 

From  1966  to  1968.  the  brotherhood  flourished  by  dealing  in  mari- 
huana smuggled  in  100-pound  lots  from  Mexico  and  bv  traffickins:  in 
LSD  obtained  from  illicit  sources  and  from  Sandoz  Chemical  "Works 
in  Basel,  Switzerland. 


Mr.  SouRwixE,  Do  you  imply  that  the  LSD  obtained  from  the  Basel 
firm  was  legally  obtained  ? 

Mr.  SixcLAiR.  There  was  a  time  when  lysergic  acid  diethylamide  was 
available  commercially.  The  first  person  to  synthesis  it  worked  for 
Sandoz  and  Sandoz  actually  manufactured  it  commercially. 
Mr.  SouRwixE.  Thank  you. 

Mr.  Sinclair.  But,  that  was  not  enoucrh;  and  in  the  latter  part  of 
1967,  Glenn  Lynd  and  two  other  brotherhood  members  traveled  to 
Afg:hanistan  in  search  of  a  permanent  source  of  supply  for  brother- 
hood hashish. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  That  is  Glenn  Lynd,  L-y-n-d  ? 
Mr.  Sinclair.  That  is  correct,  sir. 

Thev  purchased  125  pounds  of  high-quality  Afghanistan  hashish 
from  their  suppliers  in  Afghanistan  for  $15  a  pound  and  smuggled 
it  back  into  California  where  thev  sold  it  for  $900  a  pound.  This  was 
to  be  the  first  125  pounds  of  nearly  24  tons  of  hashish  smuff^led  into 
the  United  States  from  Afghanistan,  Lebanon,  and  India  by  the 
Brotherhood  of  Eternal  T>(Ove. 

In  the  summer  of  1968,  brotherhood  members  traveled  to  San  Fran- 
cisco in  an  attempt  to  secure  a  permanent  source  of  supply  for  LSD — 
which  they  found.  The  LSD  was  to  be  called  orange  sunshine  and 
the  laboratory  was  to  be  set  up  in  December  1968. 
Mr.  SouRwixE.  May  I  interrupt  for  a  moment,  sir? 
Mr.  Sinclair.  Yes.  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Here  again,  you  used  this  24-ton  figure  as  though  it 
was  the  end  of  the  Leary  operation.  Do  you  know  that  24  tons  or  any 
other  amount  is  all  thev  were  ever  going  to  smuggle  in  ? 
Mr.  SixcLAiR.  Xo,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Have  you  put  them  out  of  the  business  ? 
Mr.  SixcLAiR.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  So  that  is  only  what  you  know  about  that  they  have 
done  heretofore  ? 

Mr.  SixcLAiR.  That  is  correct. 
Mr.  SouRwixE.  Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Strange.  Two  weeks  affo  there  were  923  pounds  of  hash  seized 
in  Xew  York  and  Las  Vegas.  That  was  a  brotherhood  shipment. 
Mr.  Soi-rwixe.  Where  in  Las  Vegas  ? 

Mr.  Straxge.  It  came  in  from  Amsterdam  through  Kennedv  Air- 
port to  New  York  and  from  there  to  Las  Vegas.  It  cleared  U.S.  cus- 
toms in  Las  Vegas  and  it  was  seized  on  the  outskirts  of  town,  being 
transported  from  Las  Vegas  to  southern  California  in  a  large  Ryder 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Came  in  through  the  McCarran  Airport  in  Las 
Vesras.  All  right  go  ahead. 

Mr.  Sixclair.  In  March  1969,  the  first  batch  of  "orange  sunshine" 
LSD  was  made  bv  brotherhood  membere  in  a  laboratory  located  out- 
side of  San  Francisco.  Slightly  under  1  million  tablets  were  produced 
in  this  first  endeavor.  Numerous  millions  were  to  be  made  in  the  next 
4  years. 

At  this  point  in  time,  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Ix>ve  was  the  larg- 
est supplier  of  hashish  and  LSD  in  the  Ignited  States. 

Mr.  SouRWiXE.  Let  us  get  the  reference.  That  phrase  "point  of  time" 
has  meant  a  lot  of  things.  You  are  talking  about  March  1969. 


Mr.  Sinclair.  That  is  correct,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Sinclair.  The  center  of  their  operations  was  still  La^na  Beach, 
Calif.,  although  they  were  fast  becoming  international  travelers  and 
were  purchasing  property  in  Hawaii,  Canada,  Central  America,  and 
several  States  neighboring  California. 

From  1966  to  1971,  members  of  the  brotherhood  traveled  throughout 
the  world  using  false  identities  with  passports  obtained  under  assumed 
names.  Their  operations  were  virtually  untouchable  during  this  period 
of  time. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Why  was  that  ? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Because  of  their  mobility,  because  no  one  was  really 
aware  of  the  extent  of  their  activities. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Do  they  have  any  untouchability  today  ? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  SoTJRwiNE.  Their  pretentions  to  be  a  religion  do  not  do  them  any 
good  any  more,  do  they  ? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Sinclair.  No  arrests  were  made  of  major  figures  in  the  organiza- 
tion, and  thousands  of  pounds  of  hashish  and  millions  of  dosage  units 
of  "orange  sunshine"  LSD  were  being  distributed  through  outlets  in 
southern  California.  Local  authorities  were  aware  of  the  brotherhood's 
existence  but  could  not  penetrate  the  organization's  outer  wall. 

The  only  significant  accomplishment  by  local  authorities  during  this 
period  was  the  arrest  of  Dr.  Timothy  Leary  on  December  26,  1968,  in 
Laguna  Beach,  Calif.,  for  possession  of  marihuana.  Dr.  Leary  was 
convicted  in  February  of  1970  and  sentenced  to  State  prison  for  a  term 
of  1  to  10  years.  According  to  one  of  his  companions,  I^ary  escaped 
from  prison  in  September  1970  with  the  help  of  the  Weathermen  fac- 
tion of  the  Students  for  a  Democratic  Society  (SDS)  who  also  pro- 
vided him  with  false  papers  and  arranged  for  his  flight  abroad. 
According  to  several  sources,  the  brotherhood  paid  $50,000^  to  the 
Weathermen  to  see  their  spiritual  leader  set  free. 

While  in  Algiers  and  Switzerland.  Leary,  despite  the  fact  that  he 
was  in  exile,  still  exercised  a  major  influence  over  the  brotherhood,  and 
was  visited  constantly  by  the  higher  echelon  of  the  brotherhood 

In  November  of  1971,  the  brotherhood  suffered  its  first  rnaior  set- 
back when  George  Oliphant  Avas  arrested  in  Lebanon  while  in  pos- 
session of  800  pounds  of  hashish.  It  was  later  determined  that  Oliphant 
and  otlier  members  of  the  bi'otherhood  had  smu.ofgled  approximately 
4,000  iKMinds  of  I^banese  hashish  into  the  United  States  since  1968. 

Mr.  SoLTiwiNE.  Did  they  make  almost  $900  a  pound  on  all  of  that? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Yes,  sir.  Oliphant  is  still  in  prison  in  Lebanon. 

On  December  15,  1971,  brotherhood  member  Donald  Alexander 
Hambarian  was  arrested  in  Lagima  Beach,  Calif.,  while  operating  a 

1  In  the  pxperpt  from  his  hook,  "Confessions  of  a  Pooe  Fiend."  on  p.  35,  Timothy  l^nry 
sav.s  :  "I  Kiuldenlv  flashed  on  the  meshlnj:  of  nnderprounrl  energy  systems.  Dope  dealers  raise 
.?25.000  to  finance  the  hreakont.  And  the  hread  goes  to  the  manic  ffuerrlllas."  The  suhcom- 
mlttee  has  no  way  of  estnhllshlnjr  whether  the  amount  paid  to  the  Weathermen  was  actually 
!i!.50.000  as  stated"  to  the  Drup  Enforcement  Acency  by  a  member  of  the  brotherhood  who  was 
Involved  In  the  fundralslnpr  and  Is  now  cooperating  with  the  DEA,  or  whether  It  was  .$25,000 
as  stated  by  Leary  in  his  hook.  What  does  appear  certain  Is  that  a  very  substantial  sum  was 
paid  to  the  Weathermen  to  arrange  Leary's  escape  from  the  prison  and  from  the  country. 


hashish  oil  laboratory.  This  hashish  oil  was  to  be  the  first  encountered 
in  the  United  States.  Hambarian  was  also  in  possession  of  86,000 
dosage  units  of  LSD. 

Also  in  December  of  1971,  the  two  Afghan  sources  came  to  the 
United  States  accompanied  by  a  brotherhood  member,  Robert  Dale 
Ackerly,  now  serving:  sentence.  Their  trip  appeared  to  be  nothing 
more  than  a  sightseeing  tour  until  it  was  learned  that  two  shipments 
of  hashish  totaling  over  2,000  pounds  were  on  their  way  to  southern 
California.  The  Afghans  were  overseeing  these  shipments. 

In  January  of  1972,  brotherhood  member  Michael  Lee  Pooiey  was 
arrested  in  Laguna  Beach,  Calif.,  while  in  possession  of  133,000  dosage 
units  of  "orange  sunshine"  LSD. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  What  did  that  sell  for  ? 

Mr.  SixcLAiR.  Well,  it  depends  again  on  supply  and  demand.  You 
can  sell  tablets  for  as  little  as  $1  apiece,  or  you  can  sell  as  many  as 
4,000  of  them  for  $600.  It  just  depends. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Go  ahead,  sir. 

Mr.  SixcLAiR.  Later  that  same  month,  the  first  of  the  Afghan  hashish 
shipments  was  seized  in  Portland,  Oreg.  This  shipment  totaled  1,330 
pounds  and  still  stands  as  the  largest  quantity  of  hashish  ever  seized  in 
the  United  States. 

In  February  of  1972,  the  second  shipment  of  Afghanistan  hashish 
was  seized  in  Vancouver,  British  Columbia.  This  load  totaled  729 
pounds.  According:  to  outstanding  indictments,  both  the  Portland  and 
the  Vancouver  shipments  belonged  to  Brothei-hood  Chief  Robert  Lee 
Andrist.  At  this  time,  intelligence  revealed  Andrist  was  in  control  of 
the  hashish  smuggling  arm  of  the  brotherhood,  while  Michael  Boyd 
Randall  was  generally  considered  to  be  the  head  of  the  "orange  sun- 
shine" LSD  operation.  Both  Andrist  and  Randall  became  fugitives 
subsequent  to  indictment  in  this  matter. 

In  March  of  1972,  Gordon  Fred  Johnson  was  arrested  in  Laguna 
Beach,  Calif.,  for  distributing  approximately  50,000  dosage  units  of 
"orange  sunshine"  LSD.  Over  $46,000  in  cash  was  found  in  Johnson's 
residence  upon  execution  of  a  search  warrant.  Also  in  March,  Eric 
Chastain  was  arrested  in  southern  California  for  distributing  45,000 
dosage  units  of  "orange  sunshine"  LSD. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Chastain  is  part  of  this  Leary  family,  too  ? 

Mr.  SixcLAiR.  He  is  part  of  the  brotherhood ;  yes,  sir. 

It  became  apparent  that  the  mere  seizures  of  hashish  and  LSD  were 
doing  very  little  to  disrupt  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love  as  a  major 
drug  system.  As  a  result  of  this  observation.  Federal,  State,  and  local 
narcotic  officers  formed  a  strike  force,  with  the  brotherhood  as  their 
sole  target. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  That  was  done  in  what  year  ? 

Mr.  Six'CLAiR.  That  was  done  in  early  1972. 

This  strike  force  operated  under  the  code  name  "Operation  BEL." 
The  tool  used  by  Operation  BEL  agents  was  the  strongest  weapon  nar- 
cotic officers  have  in  their  battle  against  drug  traffickers.  The  con- 
spiracy laws. 

On  August  3, 1972,  the  Orange  County,  Calif.,  grand  jury  climaxed 
many  months  of  investigation  by  Operation  BEL  agents  when  it  re- 
turned indictments  against  29  members  of  the  brotherhood  organiza- 
tion. This  indictment  was  aimed  primarily  at  the  hashish  smuggling 
arm  of  the  brotherhood. 


On  August  5,  1972,  at  6  a.m.,  Operation  BEL  agents  executed 
search  warrants  and  arrest  warrants  in  Hawaii,  Oregon,  and  in  nu- 
merous locations  in  southern  California.  Sixteen  major  brotherhood 
figures  were  arrested,  and  over  $40,000  in  cash  was  seized,  along  with 
a  total  arrest  of  53  individuals. 

In  November  1972,  a  DEA  special  agent  of  the  BEL  Task  Force 
traveled  with  an  IRS  agent  to  Brussels,  Belgium,  to  investigate  a  lab- 
oratory relative  to  Ronald  Hadley  Stark.  As  a  result  of  the  investiga- 
tion and  subsequent  followup,  Stark  was  indicted  by  a  Federal  grand 
jury  in  April  1973.  (Stark  is  a  chemist  from  New  York  who  in  1964 
was  worth  approximately  $1,400  and  who  in  1968  was  reportedly  worth 
approximately  $1,200,000.  Stark  is  a  close  associate  of  Nicholas  Sand, 
and  according  to  some  reports,  was  the  first  person  to  ever  produce 
hashish  oil  from  solid  hashish.) 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Can  you  give  us  lists  of  the  names  and  whatever  you 
have  in  the  way  of  identification  of  the  individuals  in  these  two  groups ; 
that  is,  the  29  and  the  53  that  you  just  mentioned? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Yes,  sir,  for  the  record. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Can  that  be  provided  for  the  record  later? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Yes,  sir,  it  can. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  May  that  be  the  order,  Mr.  Chairman  ? 

The  Chairman.  So  ordered. 

[The  information  referred  to  may  be  found  in  the  appendix,  p.  79.] 

Mr.  Sinclair.  The  investigation  continued,  and  on  December  6, 1972, 
the  Orange  County  grand  jury  returned  another  indictment,  this  time 
aimed  primarily  at  the  brotherhood's  "orange  sunshine"  LSD  system. 
On  December  31,  1972,  one  of  the  major  figures  in  the  LSD  system, 
Michael  Boyd  Randall,  was  arrested  in  San  Francisco.  Randall  is  cur- 
rently a  fugitive  wanted  on  four  separate  narcotic  and  false  passport 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Now,  that  statement  indicates  that  something  hap- 
pened in  there  to  change  his  status.  After  he  was  arrested,  how  did 
he  get  loose  so  he  is  now  a  fugitive? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  I  would  like  to  defer  to  Mr.  Strange  in  this  par- 
ticular matter,  because  he  had  a  great  deal  of 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  He  will  cover  it? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Would  you  like  to  talk 

Mr.  Strange.  As  you  wish.  Michael  Boyd  Randall  was  indicted 
by  the  Orange  County  grand  jury  on  December  6,  1972.  He  was  ar- 
rested in  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  on  the  night  of  December  31,  1972. 
He  was  brought  down  to  Orange  County  where  his  bail  was  set  at 
$250,000.  It  was 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Will  you  pardon  me  ?  We  are  going  to  get  into  quite 
a  story  here.  Let  us  save  it,  and  let  the  present  witness  finish  his  state- 
ment, and  then  we  will  come  back  to  you. 

Mr.  Strange.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sinclair.  On  January  14, 1973,  Dr.  Timothy  Leary  was  located 
by  DEA  agents  in  Kabul,  Afghanistan;  and  on  January  18,  1973,  he 
was  returned  to  Los  Angeles,  Calif.  State  and  Federal  agents  arrested 
Leary  on  the  BEL  charges  and  for  escape  from  a  California  prison 
farm  in  1970.  Leary  was  arraigned  on  BEL  charges  in  State  court  on 
January  30,  1973,  and  bail  was  set  at  $5  million.  Leary  Avas  convicted 


of  the  escape  and,  on  April  23,  1973,  was  sentenced  to  5  years  in  State 

prison.  ,    ,      r.      i 

On  January  19,  1973,  brotherhood  chemist  Nicholas  Sand  was  ar- 
rested in  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  and  his  laboratories  seized.  These  illicit  labo- 
ratories proved  to  be  the  largest  of  their  kind  ever  seized  in  the  United 
States,  with  a  value  of  approximately  $500,000.  The  tableting  press 
for  the  "orange  sunshine"  LSD  was  also  seized  along  with  50,000 
dosage  units  of  the  drug  already  tableted.  Powdered  LSD  capable  of 
producing  over  14  million  tablets  of  "orange  sunshine"  was  found  at 
two  locations,  along  with  the  formulas  and  raw  materials  for  the  pro- 
duction of  over  100  different  psychedelic  drugs. 

On  Easter  Sunday,  April  22, 1973,  BEL  Task  Force  agents  arrested 
four  members  of  BEL  in  Santa  Cruz,  Calif.  Three  of  those  arrested 
were  fugitives  from  other  jurisdictions.  Some  contraband  was  seized, 
along  with  seven  phony  passports.  Huge  stores  of  false  identification 
Avere  seized,  indicating  this  was  a  point  of  contact  of  BEL  fugitives 
desiring  false  identification  and  papers. 

On  April  25, 1973,  Nicholas  Sand,  Timothy  Scully,  Michael  Randall, 
and  four  other  major  figures  in  the  LSD  operation  were  indicted  by  a 
Federal  grand  jury  in  San  Francisco,  Calif.  Four  of  these  higher 
echelon  members  are  still  fugitives. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Now,  for  the  record,  would  you  identify  the  four 
that  you  did  not  name,  and  indicate  which  of  the  eight  are  the  four  that 
are  still  fugitives  ? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Yes,  sir.  The  individuals  referred  to  are  David  Lee 
Mantel;  Charles  Druce,  currently  a  fugitive;  Lester  Friedman;  and 
Ronald  H.  Stark,  currently  a  fugitive.  In  addition  to  these  four  in- 
dividuals, one  of  those  previously  mentioned,  Michael  Randall,  is  also 
a  fugitive.  i      t      j     i 

That,  briefly,  is  a  chronological  summary  of  the  Brotherhood  of 
Eternal  Love  investigation.  Overall  statistics  of  Operation  BEL  con- 
cerning arrests  and  seizures  are  nearly  unbelievable.  To  date,  the 
brotherhood  investigation  has  resulted  "in  the  arrests  of  over  100  in- 
dividuals, including  Dr.  Timothy  Leary  who  is  currently  serving  15 
years  in  Folsom  prison.  Four  LSD  laboratories  have  been  seized,  along 
with  over  1  million  "orange  sunshine"  LSD  tablets,  and  LSD  powder 
in  excess  of  3,500  grams,  capable  of  producing  over  14  million  dosage 
units  of  the  drug.  In  addition,  the  source  of  diversion  for  the  raw  ma- 
terials needed  in  the  production  of  LSD  was  identified  in  Europe. 

A  total  of  six  hashish  oil  laboratories  were  seized,  along  with  over 
30  gallons  of  hashish  oil  and  approximately  6,000  pounds  of  solid 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Now,  those  hashish  oil  laboratories  were  m  this 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Some  were. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Some  were  not. 

Mr.  Sinclair.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Would  you  differentiate  that  for  the  record  when 
you  correct  it  ? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Yes,  sir ;  I  will. 

[The  information  requested  follows :] 

Of  these  six  laboratories,  four  were  being  operated  within  the  United  States, 
three  of  which  were  in  California  and  one  in  Hawaii.  Two  others  were  being 
operated  within  foreign  countries ;  one  in  Costa  Rica,  and  one  in  Afghanistan. 


Mr.  SouRwiXE.  And  with  regard  to  the  diversion  of  raw  materials, 
the  source  of  diversion  in  Europe,  would  you  identify,  that  for  the 
record  ? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Yes,  sir ;  we  will. 

[The  information  requested  follows :] 

That  individual  is  Charles  Druce.  a  British  citizen,  indicted  on  April  25th  for 
conspiracy  in  connection  with  the  illicit  manufacture  of  LSD. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Go  ahead,  sir. 

Mr.  SixcLAiR.  Grand  jury  indictments  were  obtained  on  Amanullah 
and  Hayatullah  Tokhi,  two  brothers  who  are  alleged  to  be  the  sources 
of  Afghanistan  hashish  for  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love.  The 
Afghanistan  Government  has  been  advised  of  these  indictments. 

Mr.  SouRWiXE.  Now,  where  were  they  indicted  ? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  In  Orange  County,  Calif. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Had  they  been  in  Orange  County  ? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Yes,  sir,  they  had. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  All  right. 

Mr.  SixcLAiR.  Other  drugs  and  articles  seized  were  104  grams  of 
peyote,  8  pounds  of  amphetamine  powder,  13.64  pounds  of  cocaine. 
2  marihuana  canning  operations,  "Orange  Sunshine"  pill  press,  7 
vehicles,  546  acres  of  property  in  southern  California,  and  over  $1.8 
million  cash  either  seized  or  located  in  foreign  banks.  The  Internal 
Kevenue  Service  and  the  California  Franchise  Tax  Board  have  as- 
sessed the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love  corporation  for  over  $70 
million  in  back  taxes. 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  Which  would  indicate  that  the  brotherhood  accord- 
ing to  the  IRS,  must  have  made  something  over  $200  million  in  its 
illicit  operations. 

Mr.  SixcLAiR.  That  is  right,  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwiXE.  Go  ahead. 

Mr.  SixcLAiR.  On  September  23.  1973,  the  State  Department  pub- 
licly announced  that  a  tougher  screening  process  would  be  used  in  the 
issuing  of  passports  due  to  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love.  State 
Department  officials  working  with  Operation  BEL  agents  uncovered 
120  cases  of  passport  fraud  within  the  period  of  1  year. 

With  these  astonishing  statistics,  one  might  get  the  impression  that 
the  brotherhood  organization  is  a  thing  of  the  past.  Nothing  could 
De  further  from  the  truth.  Out  of  the  52  brotherhood  members  in- 
dicted by  State  and  Federal  grand  juries,  22  are  fugitives,  including 
the  No.  1  man  in  both  hashish  and  the  LSD  operations. 

Brotherhood  members  continue  to  operate  from  outside  the  United 
States.  On  September  15,  1973,  923  pounds  of  hashish  concealed  in 
false  bottom  commercial  sound  speakers  was  seized  in  Las  Vegas,  Nev. 
It  is  now  known  that  this  hashish  shipment  was  enroute  to  southern 
California  components  of  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love. 

No  doubt,  the  brotherhood  organization  was  dealt  a  severe  blow  by 
Operation  BEL,  but  not  a  terminal  one.  At  the  moment,  it  remains 
disorganized  and  severely  crippled.  Hopefully,  continued  enforce- 
ment effort  can  be  brought  to  bear  until  this  complex  drug  distribution 
system  is  completely  eliminated. 

In  concluding  my  remarks,  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  offer  for 
the  record  a  copy  of  an  interview  with  Jennifer  Dohrn,  sister  of 
Weathermen  leader,  Bernardine  Dohrn,  describing  her  meeting  with 


Timothy  Leary  and  Eldridge  Cleaver  in  Algiers  in  October  of  1970. 
The  article  appeared  in  the  Underground  publication,  Good  Times, 
for  January  8,  1971.  I  believe  it  is  interesting  because  of  the  light  it 
throws  on  the  lifestyle  and  motivations  and  associations  of  these 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Mr,  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  suggest  that  this 
it€m  be  incorporated  into  the  record  as  an  appendix. 
The  Chairman.  So  ordered. 

[The  article  referred  to  may  be  found  in  the  appendix,  p.  80.] 
Mr.  SouRwixE.  If  I  understand  your  figures  correctly,  however,  is 
it  not  true  that  the  brotherhood  in  terms  of  its  operations  and  its  power 
and  its  financing  is  now  several  times  as  strong  as  it  was  10  years  ago 
from  which  it  built  up  to  $100  million  operation  within  the  space  of 
less  than  10  years. 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Xow,  I  do  not  know  whether  this  is  the  proper  place 
to  raise  this  question,  but  the  committee  is  in  possession  of  a  flyer  put 
out  by  the  California  Department  of  Justice  giving  the  photographs 
and  descriptions  of  26  members  of  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love. 
Have  you  gentlemen  seen  it?  I  presume  you  have. 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Yes,  sir.  We  furnished  the  committee  with  that 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Well,  now,  I  think  it  would  be  very  useful,  if  the 
Chair  agrees,  if  these  pictures  and  descriptions  could  be  put  in  our 
record  but  we  cannot  reproduce  them  from  this.  Can  you  furnish  us 
with  glossies  of  these  pictures  that  we  can  use  to  reproduce  in  our 
hearing  record  ? 
Mr.  Sinclair.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  May  that  be  the  request,  Mr.  Chairman  ? 
The  Chairman.  So  ordered, 
[The  photographs  follow :] 




The  individuals  shown  below  are  active  members  of  the  BROTHERHOOD  OF  ETERNAL  LOVE.  This  is  a  pseudo-religious 
organization  responsible  for  the  importation  and  sale  of  large  quantities  of  hashish  and  manufacture  and  distribution  of  LSD 
on  a  worldwide  level. 

On  August  3,  1972  the  Orange  County  Grand  )ury  indicted  these  individuals,  charging  them  with  a  variety  of  narcotic 
violations  and   182,I,V  Penal  Code  (Conspiracy  to  Violate  California  State  Narcotic   Laws). 

Since  these  fugitives  extensively  utilize  false  identification,  every  effort  should  be  made  to  notify  California  Department  of 
Justice  of  their  fingerprint  classification  as  soon  as  possible,  to  obtain  a  positive  identification  before  releasing  subject. 

MAY,  Edward  Joseph 

PADILLA,  Gerald  James 

ANORIST,  Robert  Lee 

ACKERLY,   Robert  Dale 

BECKER,  Dale  Andrew 

STAMTON.  Mark  Patrick 

SMITH,   Brenice  Lee 

DAW,  John  Robert 

SIMMONS,  Peter  David 

Dafgp  -  r«ghi  Itg 



ASHBROOK,  Travis  Grant 


SCOTT,  Charles  Fredrick  TOKHI,  Hayatullah 

TIERNEY,  Robert  Edward  TOKHI,  Amanullah  Salam 

SEXTON,  Gordon  Albert 

HALL,  David  Alan  pratT    Sunford   Leon  DRURY,  Donald  Karl  HARRINGTON,  )ohn   Joseph  Jr. 


GERMAN,  Lyie  Paul 

The   Orange   County    Sheriffs   Office   holds   Superior   Court   Bench   Warrant    Number   C  28976  for  the  arrest  of  these  individuals. 
If  you  have  any   information  concerning  the  location  of  these  persons,  please  contact: 

(LARRY   D.  MILES)   (916)  322-2438  -  24   HOUR  NUMBER 


Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Now,  I  think  we  have  one  more  prepared  statement, 
have  we  not  ? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Well,  then,  it  may  be  proper  to  ask  some  of  these 
questions  now. 

You  made  it  pretty  clear  that  the  brotherhood  case  is  an  illustration 
of  the  inadequacies  of  existing  criminal  justice  procedures  in  coping 
with  contemporary  high  level  drug;  violators.  This  is  interesting  to  us 
because  it  is  one  of  the  central  points  that  was  made  by  Gen.  Lewis 
Walt  in  his  report  to  the  subcommittee  last  September  on  the  world 
drug  situation  and  its  impact  on  security. 

Among  other  things  General  Walt  recommended  that  Congress 
consider  the  imposition  of  new  restraints  on  the  granting  of  bail  to 
drug  traffickers.  Would  you  gentlemen  have  a  recommendation  in  that 
area  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  Yes,  we  do.  There  is  a  bill  presently  before  the  Senate, 
S.  1300,  which  would  provide  for  pretrial  detention  pending  trial  in 
heroin  cases,  mider  certain  circumstances. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  The  facts  given  us  here  certainly  underscore  that 

Now,  you  mentioned  one  brotherhood  member  who  apparently  was 
arrested  on  four  consecutive  occasions  and  posted  bond  on  each  oc- 
casion and  finally  fled  the  country.  Who  was  that,  Randall  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  No,  sir.  Donald  Drury. 

Mr.  Strange.  He  is  now  in  custody. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  May  we  then  go  back  to  you  and  get  the  Randall 
story,  the  rest  of  it,  and  then  you  can  tell  us  about  the  others. 

Mr,  Strange.  As  I  stated  earlier,  Michael  Boyd  Randall  was  in- 
dicted on  December  6, 1972,  by  the  Orange  County  grand  jury.  He  was 
arrested  in  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  on  December  31,  1972,  and  taken  to 
Orange  County  where  his  bail  was  set  at  $250,000  pursuant  to  the 
grand  jury  indictment. 

He  retained  counsel  and  over  a  period  of  time  had  his  bail  lowered 
to  $25,000. 

In  the  month  of  March  we  came  up  with  some  information  revealing 
that  a  primary  figure  in  the  LSD  operation  was  unknown  to  us.  We 
had  a  name  but  we  did  not  know  who  it  was.  The  name  was  that  of 
Michael  Thomas  Garrity.  This  name  appeared  on  shipping  docu- 
ments where  a  Jaguar  had  been  shipped  from  the  LSD  laboratory  in 
Brussels,  Belgium,  to  New  York  and  it  appeared  on  several  other 
legal  documents  concerning  the  purchase  of  property  in  Riverside 
County,  in  southern  California. 

Just  as  a  chance,  agent  Elliot  submitted  this  name  with  agent  Keel 
to  the  passport  office  and  it  turned  out  that  Michael  Thomas  Garrity 
was  in  fact  Michael  Boyd  Randall. 

This  greatly  strengthened  our  case  against  Randall  and  it  also 
^ave  us  an  additional  charge,  under  18  U.S.C.  1542,  1544,  for  obtain- 
mg  a  passport  fraudulently. 

On  March  9,  when  we  got  the  passport  application  from  Wash- 
ington, we  filed  that  charge  withh  the  Central  District  of  California 
and  we  arrested  Randall  that  night  at  the  beachfront  home  of  his 
two  attorneys. 


He  had  marihuana  in  his  possession  at  the  time  of  the  arrest  and 
we  filed  local  charges  for  that  also.  We  had  the  $25,000  bail  in  Cali- 
fornia court,  and  it  appeared  later  we  had  $10,000  bail  for  the  pass- 
port charge  and  then  $1,000  for  the  marihuana  possession  for  a  total 
of  $36,000  bail  which  on  approximately  April  20  he  fled  and  we  do 
not  know  where  he  is. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  That  is  Randall.  The  bail  forfeited? 
Mr.  Strange.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SonRWiNE.  Do  you  know  where  he  is  now? 

Mr.  Strange.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  SotJRWiNE.  He  is  a  fugitive  from  justice. 

Mr.  Strange.  Yes,  sir.  He  was  indicted  April  25  by  the  Federal 
grand  jury  in  San  Francisco  but  by  that  time  we  believe  he  was 
already  out  of  the  country.  He  is  probably  traveling  under  another 
assumed  name  under  a  false  passport.  Some  of  these  individuals 
have  as  many  as  four  passports,  four  complete  sets  of  identification, 
which  is  an  interesting  story  itself.  It  includes  driver's  license,  social 
security  card,  selective  service  card.  University  of  California  Irvine 
student  ID  card,  and  birth  certificate. 

Mr.  SoTJRWiNE.  And  birth  certificate? 

Mr.  Strange.  That  is  the  key. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  That  is  an  interesting  package  of  identification  but 
who  carries  a  birth  certificate? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Members  of  the  brotherhood. 

Mr.  Strange.  That  is  one  way  you  know — this  thins:  was  a  learn- 
ing process,  and  that  is  one  characteristic  that  enabled  us  to  put  to- 
gether a  profile  of  this  organization.  We  arrested  people  who  ordi- 
narily do  not  have  anything  on  them,  much  less  a  complete  package 
of  identification,  and  we  said  who  are  you  and  he  said  my  name  is 
so  and  so  and  we  say,  really?  What  have  you  got  to  show?  And  he 
pulls  out  a  birth  certificate,  social  securitv  card,  driver's  license,  in 
the  neatest  set  of  identification  that  vou  have  ever  seen  and  it  just 
did  not  fit  with  the  person.  After  checking  on  several  of  these  we 
found  out  they  were  not  correct. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  T^Hien  you  ran  into  one  you  knew  it  was  phony. 

Mr.  Strange.  A  lot  of  times. 

Mr.  SouRAViNE.  Does  that  conclude  your  statement? 

Mr.  Strange.  About  Randall. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  You  are  sfoins:  to  tell  us  about  the  other  fellow. 

Mr.  Sinclair.  I  think  Mr.  Strange  will  also  tell  you  about  Mr. 

Mr.  Strange.  Mr.  Drury  had  posted  and  fled  on  a  total  of  $125,000 
in  bonds  from  1970  up  until  approximately  6  months  ago  when  we 
arrested  him  in  Hawaii.  Each  time  he  was  arrested  under  a  different 
set  of  identification  and  it  was  just  a 

Mr.  SouRAviNE.  Four  sets. 

Mr.  Strange.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Four  arrests. 

Mr.  Strange.  When  we  arrested  him  again  he  had  another  one,  so 
that  makes  five. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Five.  The  new  one  was  in  Hawaii. 

Mr.  Strange.  Yes,  sir,  and  we  were  not  aware  of  that  one  at  the 
time  we  arrested  Mr.  Drury  on  the  last  occasion.  The  problem  with  the 


brotherhood  organization,  and  what  took  law  enforcement  so  long  to 
catch  up  with  it,  was  their  high  degree  of  mobility.  It  is  virtually  im- 
possible to  keep  up  with  their  pace  of  international  travel. 

For  instance,  he  was  arrested  in  August  of  1972  in  Berkeley.  Calif. 
He  had  a  complete  set  of  false  identification.  They  booked  him  there, 
and  set  bail  at  $22,000.  An  individual  still  unknown  to  us  appeared 
that  night  with  $22,000  cash,  bailed  him  out  and  by  the  time  his  finger 
prints  had  come  back  revealing  that  he  was  a  fugitive  on  three  other 
warrants,  it  was  too  late  because  he  was  already  out.  So  they  stay  one 
jump  ahead  of  the  game  by  using  that  procedure. 

Mr.  SouRw^jsTE.  Well,  does  that  explain  why  the  courts  kept  letting 
him  out  on  bail?  In  each  case  they  did  not  know  he  was  a  bail  jumper? 

Mr.  Strange.  In  each  case  they  did  not  know  who  he  was. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  He  jumped  each  bail  separately. 

Mr.  Sinclair.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Well,  now,  you  have  got  him  out  on  bail  on  the  fifth 

Mr.  Sinclair.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Strange.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Let  the  record  show  that  two  witnesses  answered 
that  question  in  unison.  Where  is  he  now  ? 

Mr.  Strange.  He  is  in  the  Orange  County  jail. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Any  indication  the  courts  are  going  to  admit  him  to 
bail  or  have  you  been  able  to  defeat  that  ? 

Mr.  Strange.  I  have  been  at  one  bail  reduction  motion  on  his  part 
and  I  do  not  think  there  is  any  chance. 

Mr.  Sour  WINE.  Xow,  I  think  we  have  covered  the  point  of  the 
brotherhood  operating  in  a  virtually  untouchable  manner  between 
1966  and  1971.  Would  you  have  anything  to  add,  Mr.  Strange? 

Mr.  Strange.  Only  that  the  reason  for  this  is  that  they  built  up  a 
reputation  as  being  an  untouchable  organization.  This  is  a  hard  thing 
to  OA-ercome  on  our  part.  We  could  not  get  anv  information  out  of  these 
people  we  were  arresting  because  they  were  firmly  of  the  opinion  that 
we  would  never  get  the  hiarher  echelon  members  of  the  brotherhood. 

That  was  our  greatest  difficulty  to  overcome.  The  statistics  we  have 
given  you  and  the  facts  on  seizures  and  resource  information  are  ex- 
tremely well  documented.  We  now  have  approximately  five  high-rank- 
ing or  moderately  ranking  members  of  the  brotherhood  who  arp 
Government  witnesses  and  when  we  tell  you  we  know  4.000  pounds  of 
hashish  were  smuggled  out  of  I^banon,  we  know  that  because  he  told 
us  he  personallv  smuggled  4.000  pounds  out,  and  when  we  tell  you  the 
first  batch  of  "Orange  Sunshine"  LSD  was  around  a  million,  we  know 
that  because  our  informant  was  in  that  laboratory  which  produced  that 
first  batch 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  You  told  us.  Mr.  Sinclair,  that  Leary  escaped  with 
the  help  of  Weathermen  and  there  was  a  $50,000  payment  for  the  es- 
cape operation.  Is  your  operation  on  that  point  as  ifirm  as  what  Mr. 
Strange  has  talked  about  ? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  Yes,  sir.  Yes.  sir,  absolutely. 

Mr.  Strange.  We  have  been  fortunate  enough  to  have  the  right 
people  in  the  right  places  as  far  as  our  witne?ses  and 

ISIr.  Sinclair.  Also,  our  witnesses  liave  corroborated  each  other  un- 


Mr.  SouRwixE.  I  do  not  want  to  interfere  with  your  case  as  you  are 
building  it.  but  if  your  case  permits,  would  you  insert  for  the  record  at 
this  point  in  correcting  your  record  the  sources  of  your  information 
about  this  $50,000  payment  ? 

Mr.  Strange.  One  of  the  Government  witnesses  was  asked  to  con- 
tribute funds  to  this  prior  to  Leary's  escape.  That  is  one  way  we  know 
it.  The  individual  who  collected  the  money,  to  pay  the  Weathermen, 
was  Randall,  whom  I  mentioned  earlier. 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  Was  Bernardine  Dohrn  of  the  AVeathermen  involved 
in  either  the  planning  or  execution  of  Leary's  escape? 

Mr.  Straxge.  That  information  comes  to  us  by  way  of  an  informant 
who  lived  Avith  Timothy  Leary  since  he  escaped  and  he  says  that  Leary 
told  him  that. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  That  Dohrn  was  involved. 

Mr.  Straxge.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  In  what  way,  both  in  the  planning  and  the  execu- 

Mr.  Straxge.  She  was  reportedly  in  the  car  that  picked  him  up 
after  he  climbed  over  the  high  tension  wire. 

Mr.  Sour  WINE.  Now,  you  mentioned  Robert  Lowe  Andrist  as  the 
No.  1  man  in  the  brotherhood  hashish  operation.  Where  is  he  now  ? 

Mr.  Straxge.  He  is  a  fugitive.  He  has  four  false  sets. 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  He  also  jumped  four  bonds  ? 

Mr.  Straxge.  No,  sir.  He  has  never  been  arrested. 

Mr.  SoL-RwixE.  Mr.  Sinclair,  I  think  you  told  us  that  a  total  of  six 
hashish  oil  factories  were  seized  along  with  30  gallons  of  hashish  oil 
and  some  6,000  pounds  of  solid  hashish.  Could  you  give  us  for  the 
record,  a  tabulation  of  those  seizures,  show  the  date,  place,  the  amount 
seized  in  each  case? 

Mr.  Haislip.  Can  you  do  that  research  ? 

There  are  several  cubic  feet  of  files.  I  do  not  know  if  you  can  do  that 
without  a  great  deal  of  labor.  Is  is  possible? 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  I  do  not  want  to  put  you  to  a  great  deal  of  labor. 

Mr.  Haislip.  We,  of  course,  do  not  have  our  file  organized  to  respond 
to  that. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  I  just  want  to  identify  each  seizure  and  get  maybe 
a  short  paragraph  about  the  essential  facts  and  the  amounts  involved, 
the  value. 

Mr.  Haislip.  Could  we  confine  that  to  the  major  or  principal  seizures 
instead  of 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Sure.  I  would  think  so.  Set  your  own  figures  as  to 
what  is  important.  We  just  want  the  big  ones. 

Mr.  Sinclair,  I  understand  you  said  that  Michael  Boyd  Randall, 
whom  vou  considered  the  No.  1  in  the  LSD  operation,  was  first 
arrested  on  December  31, 1972  ? 

Mr.  SixcLAiR.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  SouR^\^XE.  And  is  currently  a  fugitive  wanted  on  four  separate 
narcotics  and  false  passports  warrants,  or  is  that  five  now? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  No.  It  is  still  four. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Four. 

The  subcommittee  has  been  informed  that  after  his  first  arrest  Ran- 
dall retained  the  services  of  two  attorneys,  ^lichael  Kennedy  and  Mi- 
chael Tigar,  both  of  whom  have  a  long  record  of  involvement  in  the 


defense  of  left  win^  militants  including  Angela  Davis  and  the  Chi- 
cago 7  and  the  Seattle  9.  Is  our  information  accurate  in  that  respect 
as  far  as  you  know  ? 

Mr,  Sinclair.  Yes,  sir,  it  is. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Are  these  men  still  representing  him? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  To  the  best  of  mv  knowledge,  yes. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Could  you  or  Mr.  Strange  add  anything  to  what 
you  have  told  us  about  the  circumstances  under  which  Randall  became 
a  fugitive?  Did  vou  cover  that  as  fully  as  you  think  it  needs  to  be? 

Mr.  Strange.  I  would  iust  like  to  say  that  Mr.  Kennedy  now  repre- 
sents Nicholas  Sand  in  the  Federal  indictment  in  San  Francisco. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Does  he  or  Tigar  represent  any  of  the  other  brother- 
hood members? 

Mr.  Strange.  No,  sir.  He  went  back  to  France. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Who  did  ? 

Mr.  Strange.  Mr.  Tigar  returned  to  France  after  Randall  fled. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Now,  Mr.  Strange,  we  understand  that  you  were  in 
charge  of  the  arrest  of  Michael  Boyd  Randall  for  a  second  time  on 
March  6  of  this  year ;  is  that  right  ? 

Mr.  Strange.  March  9. 

Mr.  SoTTRwiNE.  March  9.  Can  you  tell  us  something  about  the  cir- 
cumstances leading  up  to  that  arrest  and  about  the  arrest  itself? 

Mr.  Strange.  Yes,  sir.  We  obtained  an  arrest  warrant  from  the 
Central  District  of  California,  Federal  District,  earlier  that  day  for 
the  18  U.S.C.  1544  passport  violation  which  we  were  to  execute  for 
the  State  Department,  Secretary  of  State,  and  we  attempted  to  locate 
Mr.  Randall  that  afternoon  and  that  night  at  his  home,  his  parents' 
home,  and  were  unable  to  do  so.  We  then  went  to  Laguna  Beach 
thinking  that  he  might  be  in  that  area.  We  saw  him  in  his  vehicle 
with  his  wife  pass  us  where  we  were  parked  in  the  street  and  we  pur- 
sued him. 

We  lost  sisrht  of  him  and  we  went  on  down  the  Pacific  Coast  High- 
way there  and  could  not  catch  up  with  him.  So  we  assumed  he  turned 
off  in  the  area  of  the  beach  house  of  Mr.  Kennedy  and  Mr.  Tigar. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  They  were  living  together. 

Mr.  Strange.  Yes,  sir.  We  went  to  that  address  and  his  car  was 
there,  still  hot,  of  course,  leading  us  to  believe  he  had  just  arrived, 
and  we  were  faced  with  the  delicate  situation  of  arresting  the  defend- 
ant in  the  attorney's  home. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  You  had  an  arrest  warrant  for  him  ? 

Mr.  Strange.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Wherever  found. 

Mr.  Strange.  Yes,  sir.  So,  to  be  sure,  we  called  the  Chief  of  the 
Superior  Court  Division  of  Orange  County  and  advised  him  of  the 
circumstances  and  our  advice  from  counsel  was  that  you  have  a  valid 
arrest  warrant  for  him.  You  have  to  arrest  him.  So  we  had  a  meeting 
outside  the  house,  myself  and  the  other  Federal  and  local  and  State 
agents  that  had  plaved  such  a  great  part  in  this  investigation,  nnd 
we  decided  that  under  no  circumstances  were  we  to  approach  that 
house  without  either  badge  and  credentials  or  both  clearly  shown. 

So  we  went  to  the  front  door  en  masse  and  knocked  on  the  door. 
Mr.  Kennedv  opened  the  door.  We  could  see  Randall  standing  in  the 
kitchen  through  the  window,  so  we  knew  at  this  time  that  he  was  in 


there.  Mr.  Kennedy  opened  the  door  and.  of  course,  he  reco^jnized  my- 
self and  State  Agent  Barnes.  AVe  all  had  our  credentials  out  and  we 
advised  him  that  Ave  had  a  warrant,  who  we  were,  what  we  were  there 
for,  and  he  slammed  the  door  and  bolted  it  and  refused  us  entry  into 
the  house. 

A  forced  entry  was  required  and  Mr.  Randall  was  taken  into  custody 
and  those  six  marihuana  cigarettes  were  found  on  his  possession  at  the 
time  and  he  was  also  charged  with  possession  of  marihuana  in  the 
State  court. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Well,  did  Mr.  Kennedy  resist  you  any  further  after 
you  forced  entry  ? 

Mr.  Straxge!  Just  through  verbal  abuse  and 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  You  mean  he  cussed  at  you  ? 
Mr.  Straxge.  Sir  ? 
Mr.  SouRwixE.  He  cussed  at  you  ? 
Mr.  Strax-^ge.  Yes.  sir. 
]Mr.  SouRwixE.  Used  vile  language,  did  he? 
Mr.  Straxge.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Well,  I  will  not  ask  you  to  repeat  it  for  this  record, 

Now,  what  happened  then  ?  Did  you  take  Randall  down  and  book 

Mr.  Strange.  Yes,  sir.  We  took  him  to  the  Laguna  Beach  Police 
Department  where  we  removed  his  shirt,  took  photographs  of  him 
without  a  shirt  on  so  that  we  could  answer  any  charges  later  that  he 

was  beaten,  and 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  You  felt  that  was  necessary. 
Mr.  Straxge.  Yes,  sir.  And  it  proved  to  be. 
Mr.  SouRwixE.  They  made  such  charges  ? 
Mr.  Straxge.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sourwixe.  Then  your  forethought  paid  off. 
Mr.  Straxge.  Yes,  sir. 

[In  the  remarks  that  follow,  113  lines  of  the  typewritten  testimony 
given  in  executive  session  were  deleted  for  security  reasons,  at  the  re- 
quest of  the  Drug  Enforcement  Administration.] 
Mr.  Sourwixe.  So  you  put  him  in  jail  ? 
Mr.  Strax'Ge.  Sir? 

Mr.  Sourwixe.  You  put  the  prisoner  in  jail  ? 

Mr.  Straxge.  Well,  we  fingerprinted  him  and  photographed  him 
but  we  had  no  recourse  but  to  release  him. 

Mr.  Sourwixe.  Well,  did  he  come  up  with  the  $50,000? 
Mr.  Straxge.  He  did  not  have  to.  The  Federal  district  judge  or- 
dered him  released  on  his  own  recognizance. 
Mr.  Sourwixe.  Then,  what  happened  ? 

Mr.  Straxge.  Then  we  went  back  through  the  svstem  and  tried  to 
get  a  bail  hearing  on  our  part  and  we  did  and  bail  was  finally  set  in 
the  amount  of  $10,000. 

Mr.  SoiTtwixE.  Pretty  low  bail  for  a  man  with  his  record  of  skip- 
ping ;  would  you  not  say  ? 

Mr.  Straxge.  He  had  no  record  of  skipping  up  to  that  point. 
Mr.  SoiTiwixE.  He  did  not  have.  But  he  did  skip  that  bail. 
Mr.  Strax'ge.  Yes.  sir;  and  two  others. 
Mr.  Sourwixe.  "\Mio  put  up  the  bail  for  him  ? 


Mr.  Strange.  We  do  not  know. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Do  you  know  of  any  other  members  of  the  Brother- 
hood of  Eternal  Love  defended  by  either  Michael  Kennedy  or  Michael 

Mr.  Strange.  Just  Michael  Boyd  Randall  and  Nicholas  Sand. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Those  are  the  only  ones  ? 

Mr.  Strange,  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Now,  when  you  said  that  brotherhood  members  had 
false  passports,  do  you  mean  each  had  one  false  passport  or  did  some 
of  them  have  several  ? 

Mr.  Strange.  Some  have  none,  others  have  as  many  as  four  or  five. 

Mr.  Soura\t:ne.  I  thought  the  indicia  of  these  people  was  they  all  had 
a  complete  ID  package.  That  did  not  include  passports  in  all  cases? 

Mr.  Strange.  That  is  almost  exclusively  true  of  the  hashish 
smugglers;  but  some  who  worked  internally  with  the  distribution  of 
LSD  did  not  need  a  false  passport. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  So  the  passports  were  on  a  need-to-use  basis. 

Dr.  Strange.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Could  you  provide  us  with  a  list  of  brotherhood 
members  as  far  as  you  are  informed  who  have  operated  or  have  had  in 
their  possession  multiple  false  passports  or  multiple  passports  in  false 
identitv  ? 

Mr.  Strange.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Haislip.  We  could  provide  a  list  of  those  who  have  been  indicted 
on  such  charges  easily.  Would  that  be  sufficient  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Sourwine.  I  would  rather  leave  it  on  the  basis  of  the  information 
available  to  you  than  on  the  basis  of  the  indictment.  We  might  get 
a  few  more  names  that  way,  I  do  not  know. 

Mr.  Bartels.  We  will  do  our  best  to  net  you  them. 

FThe  information  renuested  mav  be  found  in  the  appendix,  p.  83.] 

Mr.  Sourwine.  That  is  all  that  anybody  can  do. 

Can  one  of  you  gentlemen  tell  us  briefly  for  the  record,  the  Rick 
Bevans  story  ? 

Mr.  Sinclair.  It  will  have  to  be  Mr.  Strange. 

Mr.  Strange.  Mr.  Bevans  was  arretted  in  Mav  of  1972.  in  Kabul. 
Afghanistan.  Excuse  me.  I^et  me  rephrase  that.  He  was  taken  into 
custody  by  the  local  authorities  at  Kabul,  Afghanistan,  in  that  period 
of  time  pursuant  to  a  brotherhood  photoo-raT^h  a*"  the  aimort  there  a^" 
Kabul.  Thev  realized  who  he  was  from  the  photograph.  They  notified 
our  asrent  there  and  he  sent  a  teletype  to  Los  Angeles  informing  us 
that  Mr.  Bevans  was  there  traveling  under  the  name  Rodney  Parks 
and  had  a  passport  to  support  that.  Based  on  that  we  ffot  a  complaint 
asrain  out  of  the  central  district.  And  Ajrent  Burke  escorted 
Mr.  Bevans  from  Kabul  back  to  the  United  States  in  custodv  and  he 
was  arraigned  and  bail  was  set  at  $10,000,  which  he  promptly  forfeited. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Now.  I  show  you  and  vour  colleasrues  several  charts. 
Did  vou  provide  these  for  the  committee's  information  ? 

ATr.  BartI':ls.  Yes.  Ave  did. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Do  you  have  anv  objection  if  they  are  put  in  the 
record  ? 

Mr.  Haislip.  No. 

Mr.  SouRw^iNE.  Mav  that  be  the  order,  Mr.  Chairman,  that  they  be 
inserted  in  the  record  ? 


The  Chairman.  So  ordered. 

[The  charts  referred  to  may  be  found  in  the  appendix,  p.  87.] 

Mr.  SouRwiXE.  Xow,  you  have  touched  upon  the  escape  of  Timothy 
Leary,  although  not  in  great  detail.  He  tells  the  story  quite  fully  in 
his  recently  published  book.  "Confessions  of  a  Hope  Fiend."  Have 
any  of  you  read  it  ? 

Mr.  Straxge.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sourwixe.  You  have  read  it.  As  far  as  you  know,  did  he  tell 
the  truth? 

Mr.  Strax'ge.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  !Mr.  Chairman,  may  a  passage  from  this  book  tell- 
ing how  he  shimmied  aci'oss  a  telephone  cable  and  above  the  level  of 
the  prison  lights  and  climbed  down  a  pole,  and  so  forth,  be  put  in  the 
record  at  this  point  ? 

The  Chairmax.  So  ordered. 

[The  information  referred  to  follows :] 

[From  Confessions  of  a  Hope  Fiend,  Bantam  Books] 
(By  Timothy  Leary) 

Slowly  picked  my  way  to  the  roof  end  looking  down  over  ro^d,  fence,  com- 
pound, and  way  below  car  lights  on  the  highway.  I  sat  down  and  laced  the  right 

The  socks  in  my  pocket.  I  put  on  the  left  sock  and  tied  the  sneaker.  Pulled  on 
handball  gloves.  I  lay  down  on  the  angled  roof  just  under  the  cable.  Grabbed  it 
with  hands  ,and  hooked  ankles.  I  reached  my  hands  above  my  head  and  pulled 
out  on  the  wire. 

It  was  hard  going.  The  cable  had  wire  looped  every  ten  inches  holding  a  tele- 
phone cord  below.  My  legs  bumped  and  tangled  in  the  wire.  There  were  no 
smooth  easy  sweeping  pulls.  Reach  hands.  Pull  body  ten  inches.  Pull  leg.  Hands 
up.  Pull  body.  Haul  legs.  The  cable  bouncing  and  swinging.  A  strain  to  hang  on. 
Wrenched  my  hands.  Strain  legs.  Weird  wrestling  motions,  my  body  clinging  to 
the  swaying  wire.  Sweating.  Heaving  awkwardly.  After  fifty  pulls — a  pause. 
Horrid  discovery.  Completely  exhausted.  Lungs  gasping.  Arms  drained  of  energy. 
Body  limp  and  weak.  Can't  go  another  foot.  Only  one-third  across  the  wire. 
Hadn't  even  reached  the  ro^d.  The  wire  was  longer  than  expected.  Two-thirds 
to  go.  Exhausted.  My  hands  can't  hold  the  weight  of  my  body.  With  desperate 
sexual  writhing  I  embraced  the  cable  with  elbows  and  knees.  Rested.  The  cable 
was  slowly  swinging.  Nightmare  thoughts.  What  are  you  doing  this  time?  In- 
eflScient  wizard  dangling  from  a  cable  twenty  feet  high  escaping  from  life  im- 
prisonment in  full  view  of  two  gun  trucks?  Once  again  the  little  experiment  has 
gotten  out  of  hand.  Professor.  Turned  my  head  horizontal  toward  the  gun  truck. 
The  interior  light  snapped  on.  He's  seen  me.  Put  on  light  to  sound  alarm.  The 
word  is  flashing.  I'm  pendant  waiting  for  patrol  cars  to  scream  up.  Will  they 
poke  me  down  like  a  wild  raccoon  with  sticks?  Dangling,  I  had  to  laugh. 

Dangling  from  a  sAvinging  wire  I  start  squirming  toward  life.  Five  more 
wrenching  feet.  Stop.  Wrists  and  arms  exhausted.  Panting.  I  .should  have  quit 
smoking.  I  .should  have  pushed  more  iron.  It  seemed  .so  easy.  Xow  I  know  why 
no  com  have  escaped  this  w-ay.  Olympic  gymnastics  on  a  high  wire  in  the  gun- 
sights.  I  should  have  waited  until  the  winter  fog.  Maybe  they  leave  the  cable 
strung  over  the  fence  as  a  trap?  They're  hunters  waiting  in  trucks,  rifles  cradled 
on  knees,  waiting  for  wild  animals  to  blunder  into  the  ambush?  The  slaughter 
hole.  My  hands  trembling  could  hold  no  more.  With  desperate  lunge  I  hooked 
elbow\s  over  the  wire,  with  clumsy  crablike  grabs  pulled  bo<ly  along  by  elbows. 
Stop  to  rest.  Look  down  at  macadam  road  sixteen  feet  below  and  over  into  TV 
rooms  where  cons  watch  the  shadow  tube. 

A  sudden  glare  of  light.  Forty  feet  away  a  patrol  car  slowly  turns  from  the 
compound  road  toward  me.  I'm  captured.  The  auto  rolls  closer,  a  soft  crunch 
of  tires  on  gravel.  My  blue  denim  arms  turned  yellow  in  the  headlight.  I  looked 
down  directly  at  the  guard  leaning  over  to  crush  his  cigarette  in  the  ashtray. 
Car  rolled  by  to  the  comer  and  disappeared. 


Now  tumble  into  some  delirious  trance.  Arms  crassed,  elbows  hooked  to  wire 
Inching  caterpillar  crawl.  All  hope  of  escape  given  up.  My  only  goal  to  reach  the 
fence  so  I'd  fall  to  freedom  outside  the  i^erimeter.  I  must  remember  when  I  fall 
to  let  feet  go  first.  My  hand  kept  getting  tangled  in  the  phone  wire  loop.  A  com- 
pulsive wrench  to  free  my  hand  sets  the  cable  bouncing  wildly.  Mouth  gasping, 
face  bulging,  glasses  t\visted,  sweat  dripping,  face  grimacing.  Another  skin  of 
the  teeth.  I  wanted  Errol  Plynn  and  out  came  Harold  Tvloyd.  I  felt  very  alone. 
Forty-nine  years  and  325  days  of  this  life  built  up  to  this  moment  of  ordeal.  My 
life  hung  on  a  needle  point.  In  trance  of  Sun  Dance  initiates  whirl  suspended 
by  hooked  burning  pain  in  the  chest  muscles.  There  was  no  fear  only  a  nagging 
embarrassment.  Such  an  undignified  way  to  die,  nailed  like  a  sloth  on  a  branch ! 
Other  men  and  women  in  prison  would  be  pained  by  my  failed  escape.  My  fall 
would  please  the  guards.  See  we  told  you.  You  can't  escape.  There  is  no  escape. 

No  more  thoughts.  From  some  inner  reservoir  of  JylVE !  LIVE!  LIVE!  SUR- 
vrv^E !  came  an  energy  flow  and  a  curious  erotic  lightness.  Hands  reached  up  in 
easy  strong  pulls,  legs  kicking,  body  wiggling,  arms  flailing,  shoulders  pushing 
propelled  by  uterine  squeeze.  My  gla.sses  fell  but  my  arms  smoothly  reeled  cable. 
Thus  I  butted  head  first  dripping  wet  into  this  New  Life. 

Hqnd  over  hand  till  fingers  hit  the  pole.  Hanging  by  my  legs  (I'd  practiced 
it  a  thousand  times  in  my  bunk)  I  reached  right  hand  over  head,  grabbed  metal 
spike,  dropped  legs,  twisted  body,  wrapped  legs  around  splintery  wood,  silid 
down.  Exultant  feet  hit  liberated  ground  FREE ! 

♦  *•**** 

I  was  swaying  sweating  panting.  I  saw  the  glasses  lying  on  ground  outside 
of  fence.  I  adjusted  them  on  my  nose,  funny  professor  gesture.  I  looked  around. 
All  silent.  Electric  lights  shining  on  the  steel  fence  and  the  green  grass.  Cell- 
blocks  forty  feet  away  shining  still  in  the  night.  No  motion. 

I  staggered  to  the  wall,  slid  down,  lay  head  against  the  stone,  drained, 
deeply  breathing,  listening.  Alert  fox  hiding  from  hunters,  waiting  for  pursuit 
cars  to  scream  down  road.  Silence.  I  started  down  the  bank.  The  barracks  of  the 
open-prison  compound  lay  scattered  below.  Lights  were  on.  Watch  for  fire  patrol. 
Steep  decline.  My  first  steps  dislodged  a  rock  avalanche.  I  slipped  and  slid, 
stones  rattling  aVound  me.  Hit  the  hill  bottom  and  started  loping  carefully, 
probing,  wary  like  a  kickoff  return. 

♦  ***♦♦* 

Up  ahead  I  saw  the  dim  outline  of  trees  next  to  the  highway.  Climbed  out 
of  the  culvert  and  ran  to  the  first  tree.  Standing  five  feet  from  highway  at  the 
base  of  the  second  tree,  I  saw  three  trees  joined  at  the  root  trunk.  Well,  they 
have  the  symbols  right. 

A  long  wait  for  the  pickup.  Scanning  the  cars  roaring  by.  Two  minutes.  Five 
minutes.  Ten  minutes. 

A  car  is  coming.  Right  blinker  flashing.  It  pulled  up  in  front  of  the  tree. 
I  ran  from  the  shadows.  The  car  door  swung  open.  A  girl  with  long  dark  hair 
leaped  out.  Code  words  swapped. 

—Kelly ! 


We  embraced.  I  ducked  into  the  back  seat  grabbing  the  hand  of  the  blond  girl 
behind  the  wheel.  Kellv  jumped  in  slamming  the  door.  Motor  gunned  we  roared 

— I'm  Maru,  said  the  driver. 

—Where  is  She? 

— In  Denver  waiting  for  you.  You'll  .see  Her  Monday. 

I  had  mixed  feelings.  I  hoped  She  was  out  of  the  country  safe  but  exultant 
we'd  meet  in  two  days. 

Kelly  was  talking  fast. 

— Brother,  we're  glad  to  see  you !  We  made  two  passes  by  the  pickup  spot. 
We  were  worried.  You  were  late.  I  was  going  to  start  walking  back  the  tracks 
to  look  for  you.  In  case  you  were  hurt. 

Kelly  pointed  to  the  back  seat.— There's  a  new  set  of  clothes.  Change.  I  started 
stripping  off  prison  denim. 

—Give  them  to  me,  said  Kelly. 

— I'd  like  to  save  them.  For  Barker  and  Horowitz  the  archivists. 
— No.  We're  going  to  transfer  your  clothes  to  another  car.  They'll  drive  south 
near  L.A.  and  leave  them  in  a  gas  station  re&troom.  To  maUe  the  pigs  think  we're 
heading  south. 
— How  many  cars  do  you  have  operating  tonight? 


Four.  You'll  only  be  in  this  car  for  five  minutes.  We  have  a  camper  in  Morro 
Bay  to  take  you  to  Oakland.  A  third  car  goes  south.  And  the  fourth  has  the 
shortwave  set  to  monitor  police  calls.  Hotv  much  of  a  lead  do  we  have? 

— I  don't  think  I  was  seen  leaving.  So  we  have  two  hours  before  they  discover 
I'm  gone. 

Maru  was  driving  smooth  and  easy.  In  four  minutes  we  reached  a  road  by 
the  beach.  Car  stopped.  Maru  turned  back  grinning.  — OK  brother.  You  get  out 
now.  I'll  see  you  in  Oakland. 

I  pulled  the  knit  ski  cap  over  my  head  and  followed  Kelly  out  of  the  car 
over  the  sand  dunes  down  the  beach.  It  was  still  a  B  movie,  spy  thriller,  World 
War  II. 

After  a  hundred  yards  Kelly  turned  away  from  the  sea,  over  dunes  to  a  parked 
camper.  A  beautiful  woman  waited.  We  kissed.  A  sturdy  gray-haired  man  came 
around  the  side  of  the  camper  and  we  shook  hands. 

— Welcome. 

Kelly  motioned  me  in  back  of  trailer. 

— I'm  going  to  dye  your  hair  now.  A  strange  trailer  just  pulled  up.  They  look 
suspicious.  We  don't  want  to  pull  out  suddenly.  We'll  hang  around  here  for  a 
few  minutes  and  then  hit  it. 

I  sat  on  the  edge  of  the  bunk  bed.  Kelly  standing  at  the  sink  filling  a  pail  of 
water.  She  squirted  spray-can  hair  dye  on  my  scalp  and  began  massaging.  After 
a  while  she  stopped  and  smiled. 

Kelly  is  my  code  name,  not  my  real  name.  I'm  not  always  a  beautician.  My 
father  is  Senator and  the  name  of  our  tribe  is  the  Weathermen  Under- 

I  began  to  laugh.  It  all  figured.  The  maniac  reckless  guerrilla  tribe.  Scourge 
of  the  FBI. 

— We  had  to  keep  it  secret.  We  hope  it's  all  right  with  you. 

I  suddenly  flashed  on  the  meshing  of  underground  energy  systems.  Dope 
dealers  raise  twenty-five  thousand  dollars  to  finance  the  breakout.  And  the 
bread  goes  to  the  maniac  guerrillas.^ 

— ^The  twenty-five  thousand  went  to  buy  dynamite?  Kelly  laughed. 

— Dynamite,  hair  dye,  and  fast  cars. 

Mr.  SotrmvixE.  Do  you  know  the  names  of  all  of  the  individuals 
including'  those  other  than  Bernardine  Dohrn.  who  were  in  the  car 
when  he  Avas  picked  up? 

Mr.  Strange.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Do  you  know  of  the  names  of  any  of  them  ? 

Mr.  Straxge.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Sourwixe.  Just  Bernardine  Dohrn. 

Mr.  Straxge.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Now,  the  man  who  you  said  lived  with  Jjeary  in 
Algeria  and  in  Switzerland,  was  he  an  undercover  agent? 

Mr.  Straxge.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Sourwixe.  "\^Tio  was  he? 

Mr.  Strax^ge.  His  brother  is  married  to  Timothy  Leary's  daughter. 

Mr.  Sourwixe.  "\'Miat  is  his  name  ? 

Mr.  Str-vxge.  Dennis  Martino. 

Mr.  Sourwixe.  "Where  is  he  now  ? 

Mr.  Straxge.  He  is  in  Los  Angeles. 

Mr.  Sourwixe.  Is  he  in  jail  ? 

Mr.  Straxge.  No.  sir.  Ho  is  a  Government  witness. 

Mr.  Sourwixe.  He  is  a  Government  witness  ?  That  might  keep  him 
out  of  jail. 

You  do  not  know  whether  he  knows  the  identities  of  all  of  the 
"Weathermen  who  were  in  the  car  ? 

Mr.  Straxge.  No,  sir. 

^  See  footnote  on  p.  20. 


[In  the  remarks  that  follow,  20  lines  of  the  typewritten  testimony 
given  in  executive  session  were  deleted  for  security  reasons,  at  the 
request  of  the  Drug  Enforcement  Administration.] 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  have  no  more  questions  to  ask  of 
these  witnesses.  I  note  that  we  have  arrived  at  a  point  later  than  1 
o'clock,  I  would  respectfully  suggest  that  we  inquire  of  Miss  Knight 
whether  she  wants  to  go  ahead  without  lunch,  or  whether  she  wants 
a  recess  for  lunch. 

Miss  Knight.  It  is  up  to  you  entirely,  sir. 

Mr.  SoIJR^vINE.  Mr.  Chairman,  maybe  we  could  break  until  2  o'clock 
for  luncheon  and  come  back  here  to  hear  Miss  Knight  and  the  people 
from  her  office. 

I  think  we  should  say  we  are  extremely  grateful  to  you,  sir,  and  the 
men  you  brought  with  you.  It  is  obvious  that  you  have  been  doing  a 
very  fine  job  with  respect  to  the  Leary — at  least  the  Leary  family. 

Mr.  Bartels.  Thank  you,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE,  And  it  heartening  to  hear  your  recommendations,  I 
would  like  to  ask  just  this  one  question  before  you  leave  the  stand. 

Are  you  getting  the  money  you  need?  Are  you  getting  appropria- 
tion support  you  need  and  other  congressional  support  you  need  for 
the  job  you  are  trying  to  do  ? 

Mr.  Bartels.  Yes,  sir.  Yes,  we  are. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  offer  for  the  record 
a  clipping  from  the  Washington  Post  of  Friday,  August  24,  1973, 
being  the  Washington  Merry-Go-Eound  column  by  Jack  Anderson 
and  Les  Whitten  under  the  caption  "U.S.  Losing  Drug  Smuargling 
War."  I  would  like  to  ask  this  go  in  the  record,  and  I  would  like  to 
ask  you,  sir,  if  you  will,  when  vou  are  correcting  the  testimony,  to  in- 
sert for  the  record  anv  comments  you  have  on  this  or  any  information 
you  can  give  us  in  this  area  that  would  be  helpful. 

[The  article  referred  to  may  be  found  in  the  appendix,  p.  90.] 

Mr.  Bartels,  Thank  you, 

Mr.  SouRWiNE,  We  do  thank  you  for  coming. 

The  Chairman,  I  also  want  to  express  mv  appreciation  to  vou  for 
coming  here  to  testify,  I  think  you  have  performed  a  real  public  serv- 
ice, and  I  want  to  congratulate  you  on  the  effective  work  your  agency 
is  doins:  and  on  the  remarkable  successes  you  have  had  in  your  drive 
against  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love. 

Mr,  Bartels,  Thank  you.  We  are  honored. 

[Whereupon,  at  1 :15  p.m.,  the  hearing  was  recessed,  to  reconvene  at 
2  p.m.,  this  same  day.] 

afternoon  session 

The  Chairman,  Miss  Knight,  we  thank  you  and  Mr,  Duggan,  and  I 
apologize  for  running  beyond  the  time  set  for  resumption  of  this 

As  I  think  you  have  been  told,  the  committee  wants  to  bring  its  rec- 
ords up  to  date  on  the  status  of  passport  frauds.  We  are  considering 
legislation  in  this  area  and  want  to  be  sure  that  we  have  the  latest  and 
up-to-date  information. 

We  are,  of  course,  particularly  interested  in  the  Leary  family  pass- 
port fraud  case,  and  we  look  to  you  to  tell  us  about  that. 


Your  previous  testimony  recorded  your  deep  concern  about  the 
fraudulent  documentation  and  identification  used  by  criminal  elements 
to  obtain  passports.  "Would  you  like  to  make  a  formal  or  semiformal 
statement  bringing  up  to  date  this  fraud  situation  as  it  affects 
passports  ? 

VISION, PASSPORT  OFFICE  (previously  sworn) 

Miss  KxiGHT.  Yes,  Mr.  Chairman.  I  have  such  a  statement,  and  I 
hope  it  will  be  helpful.  It  really  is  more  of  the  same  except  that  the 
situation  is  worse  now  than  it  was  1  year  ago  or  6  months  ago. 

Mr.  William  E.  Duggan,  Chief  of  the  Passport  Office  Legal  Division, 
is  with  me  today  because  he  is  thoroughly  familiar  with  the  fraud  cases 
and  the  seriousness  of  the  substantial  increase  in  document  fraud. 

If  you  agree,  I  would  like  to  read  my  statement  prior  to  Mr.  Dug- 
gan's  discussion  on  fraud  cases. 

The  Chairman.  Go  right  ahead.  Miss  Knight. 

Miss  Knight.  Thank  you,  sir. 

Fraud  is  usually  discovered  after  the  fact.  In  other  words,  while  the 
fraudulent  act  occurs  at  the  point  where  an  individual  submits  fraudu- 
lent documents  in  the  form  of  a  fraudulent  birth  certificate,  or  bap- 
tismal certificate,  fraudulent  social  security  card  or  driver's  license,  the 
Passport  Office  detects  the  fraud  only  upon  scrutinizing  and  adjudi- 
cating the  application  for  a  passport.  If  the  passport  application  is 
accepted  by  a  facility  other  than  the  Passport  Office,  the  personal 
evaluation  of  the  applicant  is  lost  to  us. 

In  other  words,  we  detect  fraud  in  the  documents  submitted  with  the 
passport  application.  We  may  attempt  to  contact  the  applicant.  If  he 
is  an  experienced  criminal,  he  will  not  give  us  a  specific  address  but  will 
indicate  a  post  office  box  or  even  indicate  that  he  "will  call''  for  the 
passport  within  a  reasonable  period  of  time.  If  the  criminal  gets  any 
notion  that  we  question  the  authenticity  of  his  credentials,  he  dis- 
appears— we  see  neither  hide  nor  hair  of  him.  Undoubtedly,  he  will 
try  again,  elsewhere,  by  assuming  another  identity. 

We  use  clerks  of  court  in  Federal  and  State  courts  and  a  few  probate 
courts.  A  total  of  approximately  2,800  courts  cooperate  with  the  Pass- 
port Office  in  accepting  passport  applications.  However,  the  courts  are 
so  backlogged  with  cases  that  in  the  past  few  years,  they  have  been 
bowing  out  of  this  work. 

Currently,  we  have  819  post  offices  accepting  passport  applications, 
and  while  such  a  spread  is  convenient  to  the  public,  and  adjudication 
of  these  applications  require  much  closer  review  than  those  applica- 
tions received  by  the  Passport  Office  and  its  agencies  or  from  the 
clerks  of  court  who  are  more  inclined  to  question  an  individual's 
identity  than  a  post  office  employee. 

Mr.  SouR-waxE.  At  that  point,  if  I  may  interrupt.  Miss  Knight,  is 
it  not  true  that  there  is  a  substantial  difference  in  the  quality  of  train- 
ing of  the  employees  who  as  employees  of  a  court  receive  applications, 
and  those  who  as  employees  of  the"  Postal  Service  receive  them  ? 


Miss  Knight.  I  think  that  is  true,  yes. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  They  are  much  better  paid  than  the  Postal  Service. 

Miss  KxiGHT.  I  do  not  know  what  the  pay  is,  now  that  it  is  an  inde- 
pendent organization. 

Mr.  Sor^R^^^XE.  Go  ahead. 

Miss  Knight.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  it  is  the  consensus  of  our  security- 
minded  staff  that  if  a  criminal  wanted  to  get  a  dozen  passports  under 
a  dozen  different  identities,  he  would  choose  to  do  so  through  a  postal 
facility  and  not  through  a  passport  agency  or  clerk  of  court.  But  we 
have  no  way  of  checking  this  obviously  less  than  secure  method  of  ac- 
cepting passport  applications.  Our  own  trained  passport  agents  in 
their  eyeball  confrontation  with  the  applicant  have  detected  fraud  on 
the  spot.  We  have  only  one  such  detection  from  a  post  office  employee. 

The  Postal  Service  through  its  819  facilities  accept  approximatelv 
30  percent  of  our  total  application  workload.  Under  an  agreement 
made  bv  the  Department  of  State,  the  Postal  Service,  now  a  private 
enterprise,  is  reimbursed  $2  per  application  accepted,  or  a  total  of 
$1,633,366  in  the  past  fiscal  year.  The  Post  Office  workload  has  de- 
veloped to  a  great  extent  from  the  Federal  courts  which  could  no  lonarer 
cope  with  the  volume.  The  Passport  Office,  however,  continues  to  ad- 
judicate all  applications,  contact  applicants  when  errors  occur,  process 
the  passport,  and  mail  it  to  the  bearer. 

One  other  point  I  would  like  to  make  be^-ause  it  is  directly  related 
to  our  concern  with  security :  As  the  post  office  pro.(rram  evolved,  we 
in  the  Passport  Office  sought  to  educate  postal  officials  on  the  urgent 
need  to  check  the  accuracy  of  the  passport  application  and  accompany- 
ing documents.  We  prepared  an  analysis  form  for  each  post  office  send- 
ing in  applications,  and  indicated  on  this  form  the  errors  made — 
dividing  them  into  serious  errors  and  not-so-serious  errors.  The  work- 
load resultant  was  horrendous.  In  a  period  of  10  months,  we  forwarded 
1,398  correction  sheets  covering  a  total  of  over  8.000  errors.  We  finally 
gave  up  this  educational  program  because  we  did  not  have  the  neces- 
sary personnel  to  render  such  service.  Correction  sheets  are  now  being 
sent  out  to  post  offices  by  passport  field  agencies  when  time  and  work- 
load permit.  Statistics  indicate  that  for  the  period  of  January  1 
through  Ausrust  1973,  a  total  of  31,770  letters  of  notification  were  sent 
to  post  officer,  advisin^r  them  of  over  73,000  errors.  Those  are  the  ones 
we  caught.  T  have  no  idea  of  how  many  we  missed. 

The  extent  of  fraudulent  documentation  presented  to  the  post  offices 
and  to  the  clerks  of  courts  is  unknown.  We  only  know  what  we  dis- 
cover in  the  course  of  our  careful  adiudication  of  the  pa=sport  ap- 
plications after  they  are  received  in  the  Passport  Office.  T^Tien  there 
is  no  p^^rson-to-person  contact  by  trained  Passport  Office  personnel, 
there  obviously  is  a  lesser  chance  of  observation  and  detection  of 

In  1968,  the  International  Civil  Aviation  Organization  composed  of 
delegates  representing  126  countries,  established  a  panel  of  passport 
experts  representing  eight  member  nations  to  studv  the  development  of 
a  new  passport  document  with  the  aim  of  facilitating  travel  across  the 
international  frontiers.  Reprasented  on  this  panel  are  Australia. 
Canada.  France,  Germany.  India,  Kenva,  Sweden,  and  the  United 
States.  I  was  selected  to  represent  the  United  States. 


The  first  meeting  of  the  panel  took  place  in  June  1969  at  Montreal, 
Canada.  Subsequent  meetings  took  place  at  Paris  in  May  1970  and 
at  Montreal  in  January  1972.  "Work  of  the  panel  is  presently  being 
continued  by  correspondence,  with  possible  further  meetings  in  mid- 

There  was  premature  enthusiasm  among  several  members  of  the 
passport  panel  for  a  "passport  card" — similar  to  a  credit  card  in  size 
with  identifying  data.  We  did  not  share  in  the  enthusiasm  because  of 
some  very  specific  drawbacks  to  a  "card  passport"  and  our  concern 
to  meet  the  expectations  and  requirements  of  our  citizens  by  providing 
them  with  a  secure  document ;  tamperproof  identification  as  well  as 

In  the  discharge  of  my  responsibilities,  both  as  Director  of  the 
Passport  Office  and  as  a  member  of  the  ICAO  Panel,  I  appointed  on 
January  10,  1969,  an  internal  study  committee  within  the  Passport 
Office  composed  of  knowledgeable  passport  officers.  This  committee 
was  charged  with  studying  the  passport  card  which  had  been  pro- 
posed by  several  European  members  of  the  international  panel  and 
about  which  we  held  grave  reservations.  Subsequently,  the  card  pass- 
port Avas  considered  a  questionable  substitute  for  the  traditional  book 

It  should  be  remembered  that  the  U.S.  Passport  Office  issues  more 
passports  in  1  year  than  all  the  other  countries  represented  on  the 
Panel  combined,  so  our  arguments  on  the  deficiencies  of  the  card  con- 
cept carried  some  weight,  especially  with  the  security  advisers  to  the 
Panel,  such  as  the  representative  from  INTERPOL.  Informal  con- 
sultations with  the  U.S.  security  community  indicated  their  whole- 
hearted support  of  the  Passport  Office  position. 

In  connection  with  this  study,  the  Passport  Office  on  August  4, 1969, 
requested  the  inclusion  of  $o5.b00  in  its  fiscal  year  1971  budget,  subse- 
quently upped  on  August  28  to  $75,000,  to  begin  the  research  and  de- 
velopment of  a  new  and  improved  passport  document.  Unfortunately, 
this  modest  initial  request  for  funds  to  begin  this  essential  work  was 
denied  by  the  Department  on  the  recommendation  of  the  Bureau  of 
Security  and  Consular  Affairs  of  which  we  are  a  component  office.  The 
Passport  Office  was  not  permitted  to  address  its  request  to  higher  au- 
thorities since  I  was  advised  that  the  Bureau's  denial  of  funds  was 
supported  by  the  Department. 

Thus,  the  research  of  the  internal  Passport  Office  Committee  was 
forced  to  proceed  without  funds,  depending  entirely  upon  the  gratis 
cooperation  of  private  companies  in  the  identification  and  documenta- 
tion field.  Over  a  3-year  period,  the  committee  discussed  existing 
technology  in  identification  documentation  with  80  companies,  all  of 
which  cooperated  with  us  for  free. 

On  May  28.  1970,  the  Passport  Office  once  again  requested  $75,000 
for  research  and  development  of  a  new  passport  be  included  in  a 
supplemental  budget  for  fiscal  year  1971.  Again  this  request  was  not 
supported  by  the  Bureau  nor  approved  by  the  Department's  Budget 
Office.  Frankly,  we  Avere  talking  into  a  vacuum,  because  we  only  have 
access  to  persons  totally  devoid  of  any  basic  knowledge  or  concern 
with  travel  documents.  The  project  was  essentially  dead  and  the  mem- 
bers of  the  ICAO  Panel  expressed  astonishment  that  our  Government 


was  so  disinterested  in  a  matter  which  merited  top  level  concern  and 
support  in  all  high  volume  tourist  countries. 

In  desperation  I  wrote  to  the  President  in  December  1970,  asking  for 
an  appointment.  This  was  promptly  arranged  for  December  14,  1970, 
and  I  discuss  our  security,  fraud,  and  project  problems  with  him.  The 
President  showed  enthusiasm  for  the  project  of  researching  and  de- 
veloping a  new  passport,  especially  since  I  thought  it  could  be  de- 
veloped in  time  for  the  Bicentennial.  He  asked  me  how  much  I  needed 
for  this  project  and  I  cited  the  figure  of  $75,000.  The  President  in- 
dicated his  approval  and  it  is  a  fact  that  the  White  House  commu- 
nicated the  President's  personal  interest  in  and  support  of  this  project, 
but  despite  this,  6  months  elapsed  before  any  action  was  taken  by 
the  Department. 

Finally,  the  project  was  expanded  and  with  the  President's  support 
$150,000  was  appropriated  in  the  fiscal  year  1972  budget  to  let  a  con- 
tract for  the  research  and  development  of  a  new  passport  and  im- 
proved methods  of  issuance.  These  funds  became  available  to  the 
Passport  Office  on  July  22,  1971,  23  months  after  the  Passport  Office 
requested  them. 

The  committee  within  the  Passport  Ofilce  bee;an  to  draft  a  compre- 
hensive statement  of  the  work  to  be  included  in  the  solicitation  for 
bids  on  the  contract.  The  request  for  proposals  was  released  on  Jan- 
uary 5, 1972.  Deadline  for  bids  on  the  contract  was  February  11,  1972. 

Bids  were  received  from  over  20  companies  and  research  organiza- 
tions. A  review  panel  of  experienced  passport  officers  Avas  constituted 
to  read,  study  and  evaluate  each  proposal  against  the  criteria  set  forth 
in  the  request  for  proposals.  On  the  basis  of  technical  evaluation  and 
Avithin  the  funds'  restrictions  imnosed  by  the  Department,  the  field  was 
finallv  narrowed  down  to  two  bidders.  A  series  of  nearotiations  fol- 
lowed and  the  contract  was  awarded  to  Commiter  vSciences  Corp.  on 
May  15.  1972.  33  months  after  the  Passport  Office  asked  for  funds  and 
17  months  after  the  President  had  expressed  his  interest  in  and  sup- 
port of  the  proiect  to  the  Department. 

So  much,  Mr.  Chairman,  for  the  backo^round  on  how  we  finallv 
manao^ed  to  p-et  moving  on  the  program  to  develop  a  new  concept  for  a 
travel  document. 

[The  followinqf  articles  were  ordered  into  the  record  on  p.  76.] 

[From  the  New  York  Times,  May  17,  1972] 
U.S.  Okdebs  a  Study  op  Passport  System 

Washington,  May  16. — Frances  G.  Knight,  director  of  the  United  States  Pass- 
port Office,  announced  today  a  $1.50,000.  one-year  research  award  to  determine 
what  passport  improvements  might  be  made  in  these  days  of  growing  travel 

In  annonncine:  the  study  contract  with  Coninuter  Sciences  Corporation  of  Los 
Ajigele.s.  Knight  made  plain  she  does  not  believe  a  simple  identification  card 
pa.ssport  would  suffice  for  travel  by  United  States  citizens  all  over  the  world  "in 
the  foreseeable  future." 

Segments  of  the  travel  industry  and  the  passport  panel  of  the  International 
Civil  Aviation  Organissation  have  recommended  adoption  of  a  card  type  of  pass- 

Passports  of  the  United  States  and  most  other  governments  include  identifica- 
tion of  the  pa.ssport  holder  and  pages  for  insertion  of  visas  and  stamped  nota- 
tions of  entry  into  other  countries. 

More  than  140  countries  now  require  visas  for  United  States  travelers.  An 
identification  card  passport  would  have  little  space  for  stamping  a  visa. 


[From  the  Washington  Star,  May  21,  1972] 
Passport   Change  Is   Under  Study 

Director  Frances  G.  Knight  of  tiie  U.S.  Passport  office  lias  announced  award- 
ing of  a  private  research  contract  to  study  the  creation  of  a  new  and  better  "in- 
ternational travel  document." 

Miss  Knight,  generally  acclaimed  for  having  "revolutionized  '  the  passport  of- 
fice since  she  became  director  17  years  ago,  said  she  was  proud  of  the  progress  but 
wanted  to  see  if  a  new  document  to  replace  the  three  types  of  American  passports 
now  being  used  would  serve  travelers  better. 

She  said  that  while  the  present  operation  Ls  "described  internationally  as  the 
most  efficient  passport  operation  in  the  world,"  she  and  her  staff  still  were  looking 
for  "constructive  change"  to  provide  better  and  more  efficient  service. 

The  office  in  1971  issued  2.3  million  passports. 

It  took  in  about  $22  million,  while  the  direct  cost  to  the  government  for  the 
operation  was  between  $8  million  and  $9  million. 

The  research  contract,  awarded  to  Computer  Sciences  Corp.,  calls  for  the  ex- 
penditure of  $150,000. 

Contract  Awarded  for  Passport  Study 

U.S.  Passport  Director  Frances  G.  Knight  announced  yesterday  a  $150,000.  one- 
year  research  award  to  determine  what  U.S.  passport  improvements  might  be 
made  in  these  days  of  mushrooming  travel  abroad. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE,  Do  you  want  to  turn  over  to  Mr.  Duggan  now  ? 
Miss  Knight.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Xow.  Miss  Knight,  that  is  fine.  Mr.  Duggan  may 
proceed  but  I  wish  you  would  stand  by  because  the  committee  is  very 
much  interested  in  this  matter  of  passport  security.  As  you  know,  we 
have  taken  testimony  on  it  before.  We  knew  of  the  award  of  the  con- 
tract which  was  a  matter  of  public  record  and  we  just  cannot  let  this 
record  stop  back  in  May  1972.  We  have  got  to  know  more  about  it. 

I  will  ask  you  when^Mr.  Duggan  is  through,  and  you  may  make 
notes  in  the  meantime  if  you  want  to,  but  we  would  like  to  have  a  state- 
ment from  you  that  will  bring  this  whole  subject  up  to  date. 
Miss  Kntoht.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRw^iNE.  Right  down  to  where  we  are  now  when  Mr.  Duggan 
finishes  his  presentation. 
Miss  Knight.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  Mr.  Chairman,  distinguished  members  of  the  subcom- 
mittee, I  will  be  glad  to  answer  any  questions  you  may  have  to  the 
best  of  my  ability.  In  my  33  years  with  the  Passport  Office,  I  have  been 
exposed  to  most'of  our'lega'l  and  security  problems.  Therefore,  I  can 
speak  from  years  of  experience  and  personal  involvement  in  my  area 
of  work.  I  believe  you  may  be  interested  in  the  overall  passport  fraud 
situation  as  it  now  exists. 

The  overall  passport  fraud  picture  shows  that,  during  the  fiscal 
year  1973,  we  detected  449  fraudulent  domestic  applications.  This  is 
an  increase  of  149  over  the  previous  fiscal  year,  when  we  detected  300 
fraudulent  applications  filed  in  the  United  States.  This  is  an  increase 
of  158  percent.  This  increase  is  indicative  of  some  of  the  evds  which 
beset  our  society,  namely,  the  drug  trafficking  problem  and  the  illegal 
alien  problem.  Since  most  of  our  frauds  are  perpetrated  by  persons 
falling  within  an  identifiable  age  group  it  is  realistic  to  put  this  fraud 
percentage  in  practical  terms.  In  fiscal  year  1972,  we  issued  921,260 
passports  to  persons  within  this  age  group.  During  the  same  period, 
we  uncovered  300  domestic  frauds  within  that  age  group.  This  amounts 
to  one  fraud  discovered  for  each  3,070  applications. 


Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Do  you  think  that  is  all  the  fraud  cases  there  are  or 
are  you  missing  some  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAx.  I  do  not  think  there  is  any  doubt  but  we  are  missing 
some.  I  think  fraud  detection  is  similar  to  the  iceberg — where  the 
greater  proportion  is  well  concealed  and  undetected. 

In  fiscal  year  1973,  we  issued  945,080  passports  to  persons  within  the 
age  identifiable  age  group.  In  fiscal  year  1973  we  discovered  449  do- 
mestic frauds  within  that  age  group.  This  amounts  to  one  fraud  for 
each  2,104  applications.  In  addition  to  the  frauds  perpetrated  by  drug 
traffickers  and  illegal  aliens,  we  also  have  frauds  perpetrated  by  mili- 
tant groups,  confidence  men  and  fugitives. 

Examples  of  the  various  types  of  frauds  will  be  cited  later  in  the 
statement.  Eeduced  to  simple  terms,  passport  frauds  and  those  frauds 
relating  to  passport  frauds  are  symbolic  of  other  fraudulent  activities 
in  the  United  States.  Reduced  to  basic  terms,  it  concerns  what  might 
be  termed  "the  mystery  of  identification  in  our  present  open  society." 

With  regard  to  drug-related  passport  frauds,  the  greatest  problem 
we  now  have  is  caused  by  the  activities  of  the  group  called  the  Brother- 
hood of  Eternal  Love.  We  became  involved  in  this  activity  in  June  of 
1972.  The  activities  of  this  group  were  discussed  briefly  by  Miss 
Knight  when  she  testified  before  this  committee  on  September  15, 1972. 
Pertinent  information  is  contained  on  pages  5  and  6  of  the  report  of 
the  hearing.  Information  on  the  Brotherhood  and  related  passport 
fraud  information  was  updated  in  Miss  Knight's  communication  to 
Senator  Strom  Thurmond  which  was  inserted  in  the  Congressional 
Record  on  June  28,  1973.  That  information  is  now  outdated. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Mr.  Chairman,  may  I  ask  that  the  letter  to  Senator 
Thurmond  be  placed  in  this  hearing  record  in  an  appendix  and  identi- 
fied at  this  point  in  the  record  ? 

The  Chairman.  Without  objection. 

[The  letter  referred  to  may  be  found  in  the  appendix,  p.  91.] 

Mr.  SouRWTNE.  Go  ahead,  sir. 

Mr.  DuGCAN.  Therefore,  I  would  like  to  submit  a  revised  table  to 
the  committee  bringing  the  information  on  the  Brotherhood  frauds 
up  to  October  1, 1973. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Tliat  is  fine.  Now,  when  Miss  Knight  testified  on 
September  15,  1972,  I  believe  she  told  us  that  40  cases  of  passport 
fraud  had  been  sent  to  the  Office  of  Security  for  investigation  in  con- 
nection with  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love  and  that  another  10 
or  12  cases  previously  sent  for  investigation  had  been  tentatively 
identified  as  members  of  the  Brotherhood.  By  April  27,  1973,  the 
number  of  passport  frauds  detected  in  connection  with  the  Brother- 
hood of  Eternal  Love  had  risen  to  what? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  73. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  By  June  1,  1973,  how  many  was  it? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  120. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  As  of  August  1973,  how  many? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  August  1973,  I  will  have  to  refer  to  my  notes.  I  have 
a  fisnire  for  July  12. 1973. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Well,  give  us  July  12. 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  July  12,  1973,  124. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  And  how  many  now? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  130. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  130.  Do  vou  think  vou  have  them  all  yet? 


Mr.  DuGCAx.  "We  again  relate  to  the  iceberg  theory  pertinent  to  all 
fraudulent  activities. 

Mr.  SouRWiXE.  Do  you  not  know  how  many  more  there  may  be? 

Mr.  DuGGAx.  Xo,  I  do  not. 

Mr.  SouRWiXE.  In  connection  with  this  one  organization. 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  No.  The  fraud  is  hidden,  as  Miss  Knight  stated. 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  Go  ahead,  sir,  you  have  a  table  you  want  to  put  in 
the  record. 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  That  is  the  exhibit. 

Mr.  SouRWiXE.  May  this  be  received,  Mr.  Chairman? 

The  Chairmax.  "Without  objection. 

[The  document  referred  to  follows:] 


April  27, 

June  1, 

July  12, 

October  1 

Number  of  frauds 73                   120                   124  130 

Type  of  fraud: 

Alteration  of  passport.. 2                      2                      2  2 

Fraudulent  4jse  of  passport ..- 2                      2                      2  2 

Identifying  witness 9                    17                    19  20 

False  statement... 60                    99                   101  106 

Place  passport  application  filed  (false  statement  viola- 

Los  Angeles 22                    31                     32  32 

San  Francisco 13                     24                     24  25 

Miami 0                      6                      6  6 

Chicago - 4                      4                      4  4 

PostOffice 4                      5                      5  5 

New  York - 3                      5                      5  5 

Kabul 3                      3                      3  3 

Clerk  of  court 2                      6                      6  8 

Other 9                    15                    15  18 

Year  fraudulent  application  filed  (prior  to  1969)  (false 

statement  violations)... 3                      5                      5  6 

1969 10                    11                     11  12 

1970     - 11                    20                    20  21 

1971 21                     35                     35  36 

1972 - - --                    13                     23                     23  24 

1973 2 5 7 7 

Detected  before  issue  (1972-73): 

San  Francisco - 4                      4                      4  4 

Seattle 1111 

Miami 1111 

Los  Angeles 1112 

Hawaii 0  0  11 

Lookout  system 111  1 

New  Orleans 0                      0                      1  1 

Total 8                      8                    10  11 

Referred  U.S.  Attorney 45 

Indicted 25 

Convicted. 2 


1— No  reason 

2— Charged  other  offense -..  3 

Counterfeit  birth  certificates  detected 27                     45                    48  51 

Purported  issuing  authority: 

Hospital 5                      6                      6  6 

Nebraska 0                      8                      8  8 

Missouri 4                      5                      6  6 

Chicago 1*                     *                     *  1 

Colorado 2                     2                     2  2 

Utah 2                      3                      3  3 

North  Carolina 0                      3                      3  3 

New  York 2 

Ohio 0                      2                      2  2 

California * 

Other  (Less  than  2  apiece) 0                    12                    14  11 

Mr.  Duggax.  This  table  shows  that  as  of  October  1,  1973,  we  had 
detected  130  passport  violations  connected  with  the  Brotherhood  of 
Eternal  Love. 

23-538  0—73- 


Of  this  number,  42  have  be^n  submitted  to  the  U.S.  Attorney  for 
prosecution,  25  have  been  indicted,  and  five  have  been  convicted.  In 
three  cases,  prosecutions  were  declined  by  the  U.S.  Attorney,  since 
persons  were  charged  with  other  offenses.  You  will  note  that,  of  the 
total  number  of  frauds,  31  concerned  jDassport  applications  which 
were  filed  during  the  years  1972  and  1973.  The  majority  of  the  viola- 
tions concerned  applications  which  were  filed  prior  to  1972.  Of  the  31 
fraudulent  applications  filed  in  1972  and  1973,  11  or  over  35  percent 
were  detected  before  issuance. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  You  mean  two-thirds  of  the  fraud  cases  now  known, 
the  passports  were  issued? 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  That  is  correct.  We  will  get  into  that  problem. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Go  ahead. 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  This  effectiveness  in  detection  is  largely  due  to  an 
intensive  fraud  training  program  directed  at  passport  office  agents 
throughout  the  country  which  we  initiated  in  the  Spring  of  1972. 

At  this  point  I  would  like  to  correct  the  statement  made  by  Mr. 
Sinclair  this  morning.  On  page  10  of  his  statement  he  states : 

On  Sept.  23,  1973,  the  State  Department  publicly  announced  that  a  tougher 
screening  process  would  be  used  in  the  issuing  of  passports  due  to  the  Brother- 
hood of  Eternal  Love. 

So  far  as  I  know,  the  State  Department  did  not  issue  any  such 
statement  on  that  particular  day  or  at  any  other  time.  Our  training 
program  began  in  the  Spring  of  1972. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  What  is  the  date  in  question  now  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAx.  It  is  on  page  10  of  Mr.  Sinclair's  statement.  He  said : 

On  Sept.  23,  1973,  the  State  Department  publicly  announced  that  a  tougher 
screening  process  would  be  used  in  the  issuing  of  passports  due  to  the  Brother- 
hood of  Eternal  Love. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Well,  I  call  your  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  Phila- 
delphia Sunday  Bulletin  of  Sunday,  September  23,  1973,  in  its  travel 
and  resorts  section,  had  a  special  feature  article  advertised  on  the  front 
of  the  resort  section  as  "Inside  Report  on  America's  Passport  Lady," 
purporting  to  be  an  interview  with  Miss  Barbara  M.  Watson,  Admin- 
istrator of  the  Security  and  Consular  Affairs,  by  reporter  Edward 
Neilan  of  the  Philadelphia  Bulletin,  or  at  least  labeled  "Special  to 
the  Bulletin"  with  a  Washington  dateline.  Have  you  seen  that? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  I  have  not,  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  I  do  not  know  whether  I  should  ask  you  to  comment 
on  it  or  ask  Miss  Knight  to  comment  on  it. 

Miss  Knight,  have  you  seen  this  Philadelphia  Bulletin  story  I  refer 

Miss  Knight.  Yes,  sir,  I  received  a  copy  of  it  yesterday  in  my  office. 

[The  article  referred  to  may  be  found  on  p.  76.] 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Well,  then.  I  will  wait  until  Mr.  Duggan  is  through 
and  ask  you  to  comment  on  it,  I  will  say,  to  me,  as  counsel  for  the  com- 
mittee, what  is  said  here  is  inherently  incredible  and  if  it  is  true,  I 
think  we  certainly  want  to  know  about  it.  You  are  moving  back  into 
the  dark  ages  if  this  is  true. 

Go  ahead,  Mr.  Duggan. 

Mr.  Duggan.  In  49  of  the  cases,  counterfeit  birth  certificates  were 
submitted.  The  States  involved  are  listed. 


Mr.  SouRwiNE.  49  of  what  cases  ?  I  lost  yon. 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  I  am  sorry.  I  refer  to  the  table  I  submitted  regardmg 
the  brotherhood  frauds. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Go  ahead. 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  In  49  of  the  cases  counterfeit  birth  certificates  were 
submitted.  The  States  involved  are  listed  on  page  5  of  the  chart  here- 
with submitted.  The  city  of  Chicago  seems  to  be  a  favorite  target  of 
the  drug  traffickers  since  14  cases  involving  false  claims  of  birth  in 
Chicago  have  been  micovered. 

One  of  the  founders  of  the  brotherhood,  Timothy  Francis  Leary, 
obtained  a  passport  on  a  false  identity  on  September  22,  1970,  10  days 
after  his  escape  from  a  State  prison"  at  California  on  September  12. 
1970.  With  his  fraudulently  obtained  passport,  he  left  the  United 
States  and  ended  up  in  Algeria  as  a  guest  of  Eldridge  Cleaver,  one  of 
the  leaders  of  the  Black  Panthei-s.  Ultimately,  Leary  left  Algeria  and 
successfully  fought  an  extradition  order  in  Switzerland.  After  being 
"requested''  to  leave  Switzerland,  in  December  1972,  he  ultimately 
appeared  in  Kabul  on  January  14.  1973,  where  he  was  apprehended 
and  returned  to  the  United  States  on  January  18,  1973.  He  is  now- 
back  in  prison  in  California.  .        ^^ 

In  a  book  entitled,  "Timothy  Leary— Confessions  of  a  Hope  Fiend, 
published  in  July  1973,  the  author  described  the  methods  by  which  he 
and  his  wife  obtained  LT.S.  passports  in  false  identities.  I  think  the 
best  method  of  revealing  the  basic  facts  is  to  quote  from  the  book. 

The  author  attempts  to  cloud  the  circumstances  by  the  use  of  code 
names,  false  names,  and  false  locations.  Despite  this  tactic  the  meth- 
ods used,  as  well  as  other  facts,  are  quite  evident. 

With  regard  to  the  methods  used  by  Mrs.  Rosemary  Leary  to  obtain 
the  passport  in  a  false  identity  the  author  quotes  his  wife  on  pages  97, 
98  and  99  as  follows : 

We  had  a  heavy  schedule.  Wig,  makeup,  photographs,  license  bureau,  library, 
social  security  card. 

Getting  a  new  head  took  the  most  time.  I  never  knew  there  could  be  so  many 
kinds  of  wigs. 

Looking  at  myself  in  the  mirror  I  saw  the  faces  of  my  midwestern  cousins. 
Oh,  Lord,  must  I  look  this  way?  Fresh  from  the  beauty  shop  plastic  lady.  The 
longer  I  looked  the  less  I  liked  her.  But  have  a  little  sympathy.  What's  her  story? 
Twenty-eight  Single.  She  needs  makeup,  her  skin  is  too  sallow.  What's  her 
name?  Margaret  Ann  McCreedy.  Lived  with  her  parents  until  last  month,  got 
her  owTi  apartment  in  Berkeley.   Supersecretary  for  an  insurance  firm. 

Let's  see  what  emerges  after  some  makeup.  Department  store  cosmetics. 
Orange-pink  lipstick.  Dark  brown  eyebrow  pencil.  False  eyelashes.  Need  help 
there.  The  salesgirl  was  obliging. 

OK,  Pam.  Behold  Margaret  Ann  McCreedy.  I  felt  weird.  What  a  change. 

Next  morning  to  the  passport  office  in  the  cold-steel  Federal  building.  I  filled 
out  forms  using  national  holidays  for  my  parents'  birthdays.  My  occupation  is 

I  was  worried  about  the  driver's  license  so  I  held  up  my  right  hand  and  pledged 
allegiance,  smiling  and  thanking  him.  He  told  me  I  could  come  back  and  pick  it 
up  that  afternoon. 

A  fat  woman  clerk  was  talking  on  the  phone  with  an  index  file  in  front  of 
her.  A  long  wait  and  she  asked  me  my  name.  I  couldn't  remember  it !  I  flushed 
and  dropped  my  bag.  I  prayed.  I  stood  up  and  said  Margaret  Ann  McCreedy.  I 
took  the  passport  and  fled  back  to  hotel.  That  night  we  flew  back  to  San  Fran- 
cisco. I  wish  you  could  see  my  passport  picture.  It's  so  funny. 

With  regard  to  his  own  obtention  of  a  passport  in  a  false  identity, 
the  author  quotes  his  companion  as  follows : 


There's  a  wallet  and  set  of  IDs  in  the  pocket.  Your  name  is  William  McMillan. 
Your  birthday  is  November  14,  1929.  Your  address  is  2925  Northridge  Road,  Salt 
Lake  City. 

I'm  going  to  dye  your  hair  now.  A  strange  trailer  just  pulled  up.  They  look 

The  person  dyeing  Leary's  hair  says : 

Kelly  is  my  code  name,  not  my  real  name.  *  *  •  and  the  name  of  our  tribe  is 
the  Weathermen  Underground. 

The  escape  of  Leary  from  the  United  States  is  then  discussed  by 
the  group  as  follows : 

Let's  use  a  simple  plan.  We're  having  a  set  of  IDs  made  here.  Use  a  faraway 
city  address.  Tucson,  Arizona,  or  Atlanta,  Georgia.  Friday  you  go  down  and  get 
a  Utah  State  driver's  license.  There  won't  be  time  for  a  picture  but  your  descrip- 
tion will  be  on  the  temporary  license.  Sunday  you  fly  to  New  York,  Monday 
apply  for  a  passport.  You  can  get  it  in  a  day.  Monday  night  you  fly  to  the  Third 
World.  Surface  with  Eldridge  Cleaver  in  Algeria. 

How  the  Learys  leave  the  United  States  is  discussed  on  page  150. 

Apply  for  a  passport  or  hijack  a  plane? 

They'll  be  looking  for  me  to  dress  up  or  hide  behind  a  beard.  The  strategy  is  to 
take  off  my  hair.  Bald.  Who's  the  barber?  Kelly — 

the  person  he  was  riding  with  at  the  time — 

Kelly  snipping  my  top  hair  close  to  the  scalp.  It  was  a  slow  process. 

"Not  bad.  Now  let's  shave  it  clean." 

"Take  it  easy,  bloody  gashes  will  betray." 

I  walk  to  the  bathroom  and  peer  in  the  mirror  at  a  high-domed,  chicken-plucked 
moose-faced  baldpate  stranger. 

Then  we  turn  to  page  157  when  he  describes  going  into  the  Pass- 
port Office. 

A  nice  Detroit  policeman  directed  us  to  the  Federal  Building.  I  recalled  coming 
to  testify  for  John  Sinclair  and  the  Seven  in  Judge  Hoffman's  court  as  Pam 
guided  me  up  the  elevator  to  the  door  of  the  U.S.  State  Department  Passport 

I  pulled  out  the  ID  cards  and  paper  with  my  personal  history.  My  name  and 
birth  date.  Now  create  a  father's  name  and  date  and  invent  a  mother's  name 
and  date  and  a  wife  named  Sylvia  and  two  lovely  children. 

A  large  sign  above  the  counter  listed  the  requirements  for  a  passport.  Birth 
certificate.  OK.  Photos.  OK.  Personal  identification  with  picture.  That's  the 

I  flash  a  slight  smile  of  understanding — 

to  the  clerk. 

You'll  have  no  bureaucratic  trouble  from  W.  J.  McMillan,  a  fine  upstanding 
Catholic  businessman  with  two  lovely  children.  Her  eyes  twinkled.  Birth  cer- 
tificate. That's  fine,  Mr.  McMillan.  Personal  ID?  Driver's  license?  No.  I'm  afraid 
I  don't  drive.  Will  Social  Security  card  do?  She  frowned  in  concern.  No  it  has  to 
have  your  picture  or  identification. 

Ah,  I  do  have  something  here.  Aunt  Bridget  took  my  hunting  license  in  her 
plump  hand. 

Yes,  Mr.  McMillan,  I  can  accept  this.  It  has  your  description. 

You  or  your  friend  can  pick  up  your  passport  in  three  hours  at  the  counter 
over  there. 

Later  in  the  afternoon : 

The  plane  was  to  leave  for  Madrid  at  5:30  and  we  had  to  be  at  the  airport  at 
4  :30.  At  4  :00  I  looked  down  to  .see  Pam  and  Kelly  leaping  out  of  the  cab.  They 
breezed  into  the  hotel  room  flashing  the  ink-wet  passport. 


I  would  like  to  submit  to  the  subcommittee  for  observation  photo- 
graphs of  Dr.  Leary  and  Mrs.  Leary  as  they  normally  appear,  and 
photographs  as  they  appeared  after  physical  changes  were  made.  I 
think  you  will  agree  that  the  differences  in  appearance  are  most 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Mr.  Chairman,  may  these  go  in  the  record  if  they  can 
be  satisfactorily  reproduced  ? 

The  Chairman.  So  ordered. 

[The  photographs  referred  to  follow :] 

Timothy  Francis  Leary  -  Rosemary  Leary 
Before  and  After 

Timothy  Francis  Leary 


William  Mc  Millan 


i        ^ 

Rosemary  Leary 


Margaret  Ann  Mc  Creedy 


*•»■   «^ 


Mr.  Dttggan.  The  question  obviously  comes  to  mind,  is  the  method 
used  by  Leary  the  only  method  used  to  obtain  U.S.  passports 
fraudulently  ? 

In  our  experience,  the  answer  is  emphatically  no.  A  more  complete 
story  is  told  in  an  underground  pamphlet  entitled  "The  Paper  Trip." 
It  is,  in  effect,  a  brazen  "how  to  do  it"  manual  s^ivin^  extensive  in- 
formation on  methods  of  obtaininjs:  bona  fide  birth  certificates  as  well 
as  identification.  The  recommended  procedure  is  called  the  obituary 
method  or  the  obtention  of  birth  certificates  of  children  who  die  in 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  We  are  familiar  with  that  document,  and  I  respect- 
fully su2:g:est  to  the  Chair  that  no  useful  purpose  can  be  served  by 
havinfi:  us  reprint  it  in  this  record.  "We  do  not  want  to  give  it  any  more 
circulation  than  it  already  has. 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  I  appreciate  that.  I  think  the  more  circulation  given  to 
this  undergfround  pamphlet,  the  more  problems  we  are  going  to  have. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  It  is  a  handbook  on  how  to  commit  fraud  on 

Mr.  DuGGAx.  Riarht. 

Mr.  SouRWTNE.  You  are  telling  us  you  are  familiar  with  it,  and  from 
your  experience  people  practice  what  it  preaches. 

Mr.  DuGGAx.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  that  is  so,  and  we  will  submit 
proof  to  show  that  one  of  our  passport  frauds  actually  used  that  par- 
ticular pamphlet  to  get  a  passport. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  All  right.  Go  ahead.  That  Avould  interest  us. 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  Well,  I  will  provide  documentary  proof  that  the  book- 
let. "The  Paper  Trip,"  is  used  bv  persons  to  obtain  T-S.  passports.  I 
submit  to  the  subcommittee  a  letter  dated  July  8. 1973,  from  a  person  in 
Los  Angeles  who  admitted  that  she  and  her  liusband  used  the  instruc- 
tions in  "The  Paper  Trip"  to  assist  them  in  obtaining  passports  in 
false  identities. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  May  this  be  received,  Mr.  Chairman  ?  I  notice  por- 
tions of  this  have  been  blocked  out.  The  purpose  of  it  is  to  protect  the 
identity  of  the  writer  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  Yes.  To  protect  the  identity  of  the  writer,  and  since 
it  is  in  the  process  of  prosecution  and  investigation,  I  think  it  is  best 
to  delete  all  names. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  But  you  are  not  protecting  the  writer  from  investiga- 
tion or  possible  prosecution. 

Mr.  DuGGAx.  No. 

Mr.  SoTJRWixE.  And  you  are  proceeding. 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  Yes.  It  is  merely  proof  to  show  that  "The  Paper  Trip" 
has  in  fact  been  used  as  we  have  suspected. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  I  ask  that  this  may  go  into  the  record,  Mr.  Chairman- 

The  Chairman.  So  ordered. 

[The  document  referred  to  follows :] 

July  8, 1973. 
U.S.  State  Department, 
Passport  Agency, 
Lawndnle,  Calif.: 

This  letter  Is  In  regard  to  two  passport  applications  filled  out  In  September  and 
November  of  last  year.  I  recently  contacted  the  passport  oflSce  in  Los  Angeles  and 
explained  my  situation  and  have  been  advised  to  write  this  letter. 


In  September,  1972, 1  filled  out  a  passport  application  under  the  name  of  — 

-,  which  is  my  maiden  name.  I  was  married  at  the  time  and  my  legal  name 

was .  On  the  passport  application  I  stated  that  I  wasn't  married. 

The  reason  I  filled  out  the  application  in  my  maiden  name  was  because  I  had 
separated  from  my  husband  a  month  before  and  when  we  got  back  together 
I  used  my  maiden  name  because  I  no  longer  considered  myself  "married"  to 
him.  I  had  started  divorce  proceedings  while  we  were  separated  which  were 
stopped  when  we  reconciled.  Also,  my  husband  had  numerous  bill  collectors 
hounding  him  because  of  debts  incurred  before  we  were  married.  By  using  the 

name  of ,  I  would  not  have  the  hassle  from  the  collectors  who  were  looking 

for  my  husband  for  something  that  I  had  nothing  to  do  with.  On  the  application 
I  gave  a  post  office  box  address  for  the  passport  to  be  sent  to. 

Shortly  thereafter  a  passport  application  was  filled  out  by  my  husband. 

,  who  I  was  living  with  at  the  time.  For  this  passport  he  tried  to  change  his 

name  to ,  I  do  not  know  how  this  was  done.  I  later  learned  that  he  put 

as  the  person  to  notify  in  case  of  emergency.  A  few  days  later  I 

received  a  letter  at ,  where  we  were  living  at  the 

time.  The  letter  was  in  regards  to  the application  and  was  the  first  time 

I  knew  of  such  an  application.  Then  there  were  phone  calls  to  my  relatives  in 

regard  to  my  whereabouts  plus  questions  about  " ".  This  scared  me  because 

I  thought  I  was  going  to  be  in  trouble  about  having  lied  on  the application 

(during  this  time  the passport  had  been  sent  to  the  post  office  box  address 

and  had  been  returned  by  the  post  office  to  your  office.)   I  w^as  also  afraid  I 

would  be  tied  in  to  the application  which  I  didn't  have  any  thing  to  do 

with.  Unfortunately  instead  of  being  rational  and  smart.  I  had  already  planned 
to  leave  Los  Angeles  to  drive  across  the  United  States,  so  I  left  as  planned. 
I  had  seen  a  book  entitled,  "The  Paper  Trip"  in  the  Los  Angeles  Free  Press 
claiming  to  tell  you  how  to  change  your  ID  "legally".  I  thought  this  was  a  solu- 
tion, not  fully  realizing  the  seriousness  of  the  situation. 

The  drive  across  took  a  week  and  was  made  by  myself  and  my  husband.  We 
arrived  in  Miami  and  stayed  with  relatives  for  a  week.  We  then  left  for  Penn- 
sylvania where  we  stayed  for  a  month  in  a  house  we  rented.  In  Pennsylvania  is 
where  we  received  "The  Paper  Trip"  and  started  gathering  the  necessary  things 
to  obtain  the  passports  (birth  certificates  and  other  identification).  In  "The  Paper 
Trip"  it  is  fully  explained  how  to  do  this :  find  the  name  of  someone  deceased, 
in  old  newspapers  obtainable  in  any  large  library,  who  is  close  to  the  age  you 
would  like  to  be,  obtain  the  death  certificate,  from  the  df^ath  certificate  you 
get  the  information  necessary  for  the  birth  certificate.  For  $2.00  you  can  obtain 
the  birth  certificate. 

Once  I  obtained  the  birth  certificate,  I  left  for  New  York  still  without  the  neces- 
sary identification.  In  New  York  a  printer  printed  school  identification  cards 
with  all  the  necessary  information ;  with  a  picture  attached  and  laminated  it 
looked  like  a  regular  school  ID  card. 

In  New  York  the  time  for  receiving  passports  was  too  long,  so  we  drove  to 
Philadelphia  to  fill  out  the  application.  This  was  November  27,  1972.  I  filled  out 
and  received  a  passport  (enclosed)  as on  this  day.  On  Decem- 
ber 5  we  left  for  Europe ;  staying  in  London  for  two  months,  while  trying  to  get 
a  business  going  importing  guitars.  When  this  was  unsuccessful  we  returned. 

It  took  me  three  months  to  get  the  money  to  take  the  trip  back  to  Los  Angeles. 
I  was  in  New  York  for  two  weeks  with  friends  and  in  Pennsylvania  for  two  and  a 
half  months.  I  separated  from  my  husband  in  Pennsylvania  and  I'm  in  the  proc- 
ess of  obtaining  a  divorce.  I'm  now  living  with  my  parents  and  my  only  is 
to  correct  my  records.  I  realize  now  that  I  only  made  matters  worse  by  not  clear- 
ing it  up  in  the  beginning,  but  I  was  young  (19)  and  very  foolish  at  the  time. 
I  feel  that  things  went  far  enough  and  that  now  is  the  time  to  have  things  cor- 
rected. If  there  are  any  further  questions,  I  can  be  reached  at : 

I  hope  things  can  be  straightened  out  and  I'm  very  sorry. 
Thank  you. 



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Mr.  DuGGAN.  Now,  on  pa^e  15  of  "The  Paper  Trip,"  reference  is 
made  to  the  "U.S.  Driver's  License  Guide"  issued  by  a  private  com- 
pany in  California. 

Now,  this  book  contains  reproductions  of  every  driver's  license  is- 
sued by  every  State  in  the  Union.  I  was  concerned  that  the  booklet  in 
the  wrong  hands  would  add  to  the  problems  of  law  enforcement  agen- 
cies. I  drafted  a  letter  to  the  firm  expressing  my  concern.  Copies  of  my 
letter  and  reply  are  offered  for  the  information  of  the  subcommittee. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  May  these  go  in  the  record,  Mr.  Chairman  ? 

The  Chairman.  So  ordered. 

[The  documents  referred  to  follow :] 

Septembeb  26, 1972. 
Mr.  Keith  Doebqe, 
President,  Drivers  License  Ouide  Co., 
Redwood  City,  Calif. 

Dear  Mb.  Doeroe  :  I  refer  to  your  letter  of  September  13,  1972,  forwarding  a 
courtesy  copy  of  the  1973  edition  of  the  Drivers  License  Guide. 

In  reviewing  the  1973  edition,  I  have  noted  that  there  are  many  changes  from 
the  original  edition.  For  this  reason,  I  am  recommending  that  a  number  of  copies 
of  the  1973  edition  be  obtained  for  our  organization.  I  would  like  to  make  one 
observation.  Tour  guide  is  designed  to  help  prevent  fraud  and  it  is  very  helpful 
in  this  regard.  However,  it  would  appear  that  there  are  no  controls  placed 
upon  persons  who  can  obtain  this  manual.  For  this  reason,  persons  who  wish 
to  perpetrate  frauds  by  obtaining  drivers  licenses  fraudulently  find  their  efforts 
greatly  eased  by  resorting  to  your  manual. 

I   would   appreciate   being   informed  i)ersonally   what   efforts,   if  any,   your 
organization  makes  to  endeavor  to  keep  this  manual  in  the  hands  ot  persons 
using  it  for  the  law-enforcement  purpose  for  which  it  was  created. 

W.  E.  DUQGAN, 

Chief,  Legal  Division,  Passport  Office. 

Drivebs  License  GtrroE  Co., 

October  5,  1972. 

Mr.  W.  E.  Dtjqgan, 

Chief,  Legal  Division, 

Passport  Office,  Department  of  State, 

Washington,  D.C. 

Dear  Mb.  Duggan  :  Thank  you  for  your  help  in  recommending  the  Guide  for 

I  can  understand  your  concern  with  the  proper  distribution  of  the  Guide,  and 
we  do  try  to  maintain  control. 

Originally,   this   was   discussed  with   Department  of  Justice  personnel   and 
various  police  forces.  The  conclusion  reached  was  as  follows  : 

Criminal  elements  counterfeiting  licenses  do  so  by  reference  to  a  real, 
valid  license  from  that  state.  These  are  not  difficult  for  him  to  obtain. 
Law  enforcement  and  business  operations  are  forced  to  detect  those  coun- 
terfeit licenses  with  no  reference  at  all  or  with  the  reproductions  in  the 
Drivers  License  Guide. 
The  conclusion  was  that  the  counterfeiter  wasn't  gaining  much  by  having  a 
Guide  if  he  could  get  one,  but  that  the  detection  of  counterfeits  would  certainly 
be  helped. 

I  hope  that  this  explains  the  position  taken.  While  we  screen  requests  and 
control  locations  where  it's  available,  we  do  want  valid  law  enforcement  and 
business  interests  to  be  protected. 
Thanks  again  for  your  interest. 

Keith  Doerge,  President. 

Mr.  Duggan.  The  obituary  method  is  being  used  as  of  this  moment. 
I  might  state  that  during  the  first  week  of  September,  we  received 


information  that  two  individuals  posing  as  insurance  actuaries  ob- 
tained permission  to  review  State  vital  records  on  an  Eastern  State. 
After  these  individuals  had  been  engaged  for  some  time  in  their  activi- 
ties, the  suspicion  of  one  of  the  experienced  employees  was  aroused. 
It  was  ascertained  that  the  two  individuals  were  checking  death  rec- 
ords as  well  as  birth  records  for  deceased  children.  A  short  time  later, 
requests  were  being  received  from  individuals  for  copies  of  the  very 
records  which  were  reviewed  by  these  two  persons.  The  Passport  Of- 
fice is  taking  appropriate  action  to  forestall  the  issue  of  passports  in 
the  names  involved.  How  many  times  similar  procedures  are  being 
used  or  have  been  used  to  get  into  vital  records,  one  can  only  hazard  a 

Steps  have  been  taken  by  the  Passport  Office  to  detect  persons  fraud- 
ulently applying  for  U.S.  passports  using  the  techniques  expounded 
in  "The  Paper  Trip."  In  all  frauds  detected,  the  Passport  Office  is  rec- 
ommending vigorous  prosecution. 

There  is  no  mystery  as  to  why  persons  engaged  in  criminal  activities 
desire  U.S.  passports  and  will  go  to  any  lengths  to  obtain  them.  In 
most  oases,  these  individuals  are  already  known  in  their  true  identities 
by  law  enforcement  agencies,  and  some  of  them  are  being  sought  as 
criminals  by  law  enforcement  agencies.  To  continue  their  illegal  activi- 
ties, they  need  new  identities.  Since  the  U.S.  passport  is  considered 
one  of  the  best,  if  not  the  best  document  of  identification  that  exists, 
the  carefully  laid  plans  and  persistent  efforts  of  the  criminal  element  to 
secure  U.S.  passports  in  false  identities  is  understandable. 

The  basic  problem  underlying  most  of  our  passport  frauds  reduces 
itself  down  to  the  question  of  identification.  How  is  the  identity  estab- 
lished of  an  individual  who  applies  for  a  U.S.  passport?  How  is  the 
identity  established  of  any  person  who  applies  for  a  driver's  license,  a 
credit  card,  a  social  security  number,  or  any  other  document? 

There  is  no  single  document  issued  in  the  United  States  available  to 
the  general  public  which  conclusively  establishes  identification.  The 
United  States  has  no  national  registration,  and  there  is  no  coordina- 
tion between  birth  and  death  records.  There  are  millions  of  people  in 
this  country  who  are  unidentifiable  by  any  documentary  standards. 

Drivers'  licenses  issued  by  the  various  States  are  the  commonly 
accepted  documents  of  identification  in  obtaining  credit  cards,  cashing 
checks,  and  so  forth.  However,  a  close  look  at  the  methods  by  which  the 
various  States  issue  drivers'  licenses  makes  one  thino;  crystal  clear: 
There  is  no  effort  on  the  part  of  the  issuing  authorities  to  establish 
the  identification  of  the  person  appearing  before  them  for  a  driver's 

In  a  newspaper  article  appearing  in  the  AVashington  Post  of 
August  28,  1973,  it  is  stated  in  the  headlines  that  "identity  proof" 
will  be  required  of  a  person  applyins:  for  a  driver's  license  in  the  Dis- 
trict of  Columbia.  In  reading  the  article  carefully,  however,  it  becomes 
evident  that  what  the  District  is  requiring  is  the  submission  of  a  birth 
certificate  to  establish  the  age  of  the  applicant.  But  it  is  a  fact  that  a 
birth  certificate  is  not  evidence  of  identity.  It  is  merelv  evidence  that 
the  peison  named  in  the  certificate  was  born  in  the  United  States,  and 
that  is  all. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  have  you  ever  researched  the 
question  of  whether  it  is  a  violation  of  any  Federal  law  to  get  a  birth 


certificate  issued  to  any  person  with  a  view  to  using  it  fraudulently 
in  order  to  procure  a  passport  or  other  Government  document? 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  Yes.  It  would  be  part  of  the  violation  of  18  U.S.C. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  On  what  theory  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  On  the  theory  that  this  is  part  of  your  corpus. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  I  do  not  think  you  understood  me.  I  do  not  mean 
to  cut  you  off  short.  It  is  perfectly  clear  that  if  I  obtain  a  birth  cer- 
tificate issued  for  my  brother  and  presented  it  as  my  own  birth  cer- 
tificate and  apply  for  a  passport,  I  am  committino:  an  offense  because 
that  is  fraud.  But  when  I  write  to  the  Bureau  of  Vital  Statistics  in 
my  hometown  and  ask  for  my  brother's  certificate  or  the  birth  cer- 
tificate of  any  other  named  individual,  I  am  not  committing  any  fraud 
even  though!  may  intend  thereafter  to  use  it  fraudulently. 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  There  is  no  Federal  statute  violated. 

Mr.  SoTjRWixE.  Xo  violation. 

Mr.  DuGGAx.  To  my  knowledge,  there  is  no  Federal  statute  which 
would  cover  that  situation.  That  would  have  to  be  covered  by  State 
law  since  a  State  document  is  involved.  Some  States  do  have  such  laws. 
But  Federal  Government,  no. 

Mr.  SoTJRWixE.  There  is  no  Federal  statute  in  this  area  at  all. 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  Right. 

Mr.  SouR%^axE.  In  your  judgment,  would  it  be  helpful  if  we  had 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  It  certainly  would  be  helpful  if  we  had  one. 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  Forgive  my  interjection.  Go  ahead. 

Mr.  DroGAx.  AVe  have  found,  in  fraud  case  after  fraud  case,  that 
the  procedure  outlined  in  Learv's  book  works.  Obtain  a  birth  certificate 
using  one  of  the  methods  described  in  "The  Paper  Trin" ;  submit  the 
birth  certificate  to  the  req;istrar  of  motor  vehicles:  and  it  is  accepted  at 
face  value  that  the  anDlicant  is  the  person  named  in  the  birth  certif- 
icate. It  is  a  cycle  of  fraud  begetting  fraud.  It  is  a  known  fact  that 
driver's  licenses  of  manv  States  haA'e  been  counterfeited.  It  is  also  a 
fact  that  genuine  blank  forms  of  driver's  licenses  have  been  stolen  from 
registrars'  offices,  thus  permitting  persons  to  insert  in  the  blank  spaces 
anv  personal  data  thev  mav  wish.  It  is  a  fact  that  a  driver's  license, 
regardless  of  the  sophistication  of  the  card  itself,  is  not  secure  evidence 
of  identitv  since  it  is  so  easily  obtainable. 

Mr.  SorRwixE.  There  is  a  great  tendency  to  accept  Social  Security 
cards  as  evidence  of  identity  and,  of  course,  they  are  not  in  any  sense 
of  the  word,  are  they  ? 

Mr.  DrCrGAX.  Thev  are  not  and  they  so  state  on  the  face. 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  I  know.  And  I  can  get  a  Social  Security  card  under 
any  name  I  want  to  and  fiet  another  one  tomorrow  and  I  am  not  even 
committing  an  offense  when  I  do  it.  xVs  long  as  I  do  not  use  the  card 
to  misrepresent  myself  for  a  fraudulent  purpose  as  beins  some  person 
other  than  what  I  am.  I  can  even  so  to  work  under  that  false  name  and 
if  I  am  not  defrauding  anybodv  there  is  no  offense  committed,  is  there? 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  Xot  so  far  as  I  know. 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  No  part  of  the  Social  Security  law  prohibits  a  man 
from  having,  two,  three,  five  or  any  other  number  of  Social  Security 
cards  under  anv  name  he  wants,  is  there  ? 

Mr.  DroGAx.  Onlv  if  von  trv  to  collect  benefits  under  each  one. 

Mr.  SoFRWTXE.  Onlv  if  he  tries  to  collect— he  cannot  use  them  for 
that  purpose  but  they  are  not  in  any  sense  a  violation. 


Mr.  DuGGAN.  Not  unless  they  try  to  collect  benefits  under  different 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  And  yet  the  Internal  Revenue  Service  uses  social 
security  numbers  for  identification.  There  is  a  great  move  in  the  direc- 
tion of  giving  everybody  a  number.  And  the  number  is  no  identifica- 
tion at  all.  A  man  has  a  number  and  that  number  is  no  more  iden- 
tification than  the  name  or  a  phony  birth  certificate  or  a  phony 

Go  ahead. 

Mr.  DuGGAN,  Now,  we  get  into  the  area  of  fraudulent  birth  docu- 
ments. If  the  committee  so  desires  I  will  be  glad  to  submit  a  number 
of  counterfeit  birth  documents. 

Mr.  SouRWiisrE.  May  these  be  received,  Mr.  Chairman,  subject  to  the 
order  that  if  they  can  be  accurately  reproduced,  they  may  be  printed 
in  the  appendix  of  this  hearing. 

The  Chairman.  So  ordered. 

[The  documents  referred  to  may  be  found  in  the  appendix,  p.  97.] 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  Now.  these  kinds  of  documents  are  produced  by  com- 
panies which  advertise  in  newspapers.  They  can  also  be  produced  bv 
criminal  underground  groups  with  printing-  equipment  and  through 
photographic  processes.  Any  black  and  white  document  can  be  re- 
produced easily  with  equipment  that  is  generally  available  to  the 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Off  the  record. 

[Discussion  off  the  record.] 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Go  ahead,  sir. 

Mr.  DuGGAx.  The  easy  reproduction  of  black  and  white  is  one  of 
the  reasons  we  encourage  State  registrars  to  use  safety  paper  or  other 
features  that  would  make  it  more  difficult  for  counterfeiting.  This  is 
also  why  we  insist  on  an  embossed  raised  seal  on  a  birth  certificate. 

There  are  some  ways  in  which  counterfeit  documents  can  be  readily 
ascertained.  These  techniques  are  fully  developed  during  our  fraud 
training  seminars. 

While  we  have  many  cases  showing  the  effectiveness  of  our  training 
program,  I  will  refer  to  one  fairly  recent  case  which  uncovered  a  fugi- 
tive who  was  associated  with  illegal  drug  activities. 

On  July  10,  1973,  a  female  applied  for  a  passport  in  the  Washing- 
ton Passport  Agency.  The  agent  handling  the  case,  using  techniques 
which  we  have  developed  in  the  past  2  years,  sensed  that  there  was 
something  which  did  not  ring  true  in  the  application.  Since  the  ap- 
plicant claimed  to  have  lived  in  Akron,  Ohio,  a  telephone  call  to  the 
Akron  police  resulted  in  the  information  that  the  applicant  was  a 
parolee.  She  was  subseouentlv  arrested  by  the  Metropolitan  Police  of 
the  District  of  Columbia.  Later  developments  showed  that  a  substan- 
tial sum  of  money  was  found  in  the  car  she  was  using  and  she  was 
connected  with  a  large  drug  operation.  The  police  authorities  in 
AVashin<Tton  and  Ohio  are  now  investi.qratin(r  the  activities  of  the 

Mr.  SouRwiXE.  Was  that  an  unusual  case  of  acuitv  on  the  part  of 
your  employee  who  made  the  discovery  or  became  suspicious,  at  least, 
of  fraud  or  are  all  of  your  people  trained  in  such  a  way  that  you  ex- 
pect them  to  do  this  ? 


Mr.  DuGGAN.  At  the  present  time,  our  people  are  trained  to  look  for 
precisely  what  this  agent  looked  for  in  this  particular  case. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Now,  how  about  the  postal  clerks  who  handle  pass- 
port applications?  Do  they  have  this  training? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  No.  The  postal  clerks  do  not  have  it  nor  do  the  clerks 
of  court  have  it. 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  Have  the  postal  clerks  caught  any  phony  applica- 
tions as  far  as  you  know  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  I  think  one  case. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Have  the  clerks  of  court  caught  any  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  The  clerks  of  court  have  caught,  I  think,  three  cases 
during  the  past  year. 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  Do  you  have  any  figures  or  can  you  give  us  a  figure 
proportionately  what  proportion  of  all  passport  applicants  your  own 
people  have  detected  to  be  fraudulent  and  what  proportion  of  applica- 
tions handled  by  them,  respectively,  have  been  detected  as  fraudulent 
by  either  the  clerks  of  court  or  the  Postal  Service  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  Yes.  I  can  furnish  those. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  May  that  be  furnished  for  the  record,  Mr.  Chairman, 
to  be  inserted  when  the  record  is  corrected  by  the  witness  ? 

The  Chairman.  So  ordered. 

[The  material  referred  to  follows :] 



Post  office - --- 

State  clerks  of  court - ..- 

Passport  agencies 

Mail-in  applications 

Federal  clerks  of  court 

Military  passport  agents 

Legal  division  passport  office 72  51.4 

Domestic  passport  frauds,  fiscal  year  1973 

Total  frauds  detected  before  issue 1^0 

Total  frauds  detected  after  Issue 309 

Total  domestic  frauds  detected 44Q 

Frauds  detected  before  issue 

Frauds  detected  by  post  oflBce 1 

Frauds  detected  by  clerks  of  court 0 

Frauds  detected  by  other  law  enforcement  agencies 12 

Frauds  detected  by  Legal  Division  Passpore  Office 60 

Frauds  detected  by  passport  agencies 

Frauds  detected  on  applications  executed  by  agencies 29 

Frauds  detected  by  agencies  during  adjudication  of  applications  executed 
by  post  office 15 

Frauds  detected  by  agencies  during  adjudication  of  applications  executed 

by    clerks    of   court 23 

Total  detected  by  agencies .--- 67 

Total  frauds  detected  before  issue 140 

Percentage  of 

Number  of 



before  issue 

Percentage  of 



before  issue 

30  . 









Frauds  detected  after  issue 

Frauds  detected  by  post  oflSce 0 

Frauds  detected  by  clerks  of  court 0 

Frauds  detected  by  other  law  enforcement  agencies 182 

Frauds  detected  by  Legal  Division  Passport  OflBce 119 

Frauds    detected  by  passport  agencies 

Frauds  detected  on  Applications  executed  by  agencies 3 

Frauds  detected  by  agencies  on  applications  executed  by  post  oflSce 2 

Frauds  detected  by  agencies  on  applications  executed  by  clerks  of  court.-  3 

Total  detected  by  agencies 8 

Total  frauds  detected  after  issue 309 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Go  ahead,  sir. 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  Now,  with  regard  to  the  activities  of  militants  in  ob- 
taining passport  by  fraud,  I  refer  to  the  news  item  concerning  the 
shooting  of  a  Xew  Jersey  policeman  by  a  militant  group  on  May  2. 
1973.  In  the  automobile  the  militants  were  driving,  there  was  found 
a  quantity  of  blank  birth  certificates,  identity  documents  and  one 
U.S.  passport.  Investigation  disclosed  that  the  passport  had  been 
obtained  fraudulently  through  the  submission  of  a  counterfeit  birth 
certificate.  The  militant  group  is  known  as  the  Black  Liberation  Army. 
I  would  also  like  to  furnish  the  news  item  concerning  the  arrest  by  the 
FBI  of  Herman  Bell — one  of  the  10  most  wanted  criminals — in  New 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Do  you  have  a  number  of  items  of  this  general  nature 
that  you  want  to  submit  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAx.  Yes. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Mr.  Chairman,  may  they  be  received  en  bloc  for  in- 
sertion in  the  record  ? 

Off  the  record. 

[Discussion  off  the  record.] 

[The  material  referred  to  may  be  found  in  the  appendix,  p.  104.] 

Mr.  DuGGAx.  The  potential  use  of  the  lost  or  stolen  U.S.  passports 
by  foreign  militant  groups  is  a  constant  source  of  worry.  When  the 
Arab  guerrillas  blew  up  the  three  planes  in  the  African  desert  in 
1970.  we  found  a  number  of  U.S.  passports  belonging  to  the  U.S. 
citizens  who  were  on  board  the  planes  were  missing.  We  have,  of 
course,  taken  appropriate  action  to  prevent  illegal  use  of  these 

To  this  date.  I  am  happy  to  say.  we  have  not  been  faced  witli  the 
use  of  any  of  these  passports  in  anv  hijackings  or  guerrilla  activities. 
Wliether  such  passports  have,  in  fact,  been  used  in  crossing  interna- 
tional borders  abroad  cannot,  of  course,  be  ascertained.  It  would  be 
naivo  to  assume  that  such  groups  would  not  realize  the  value  of  such 
documents  to  cover  their  activities. 

We  also  live  with  the  ever-present  potential  of  the  use  of  U.S.  pass- 
ports by  foreign  intelligence  agencies. 

The  use  of  T"''.S.  passports  bv  Colonel  Abel,  the  convicted  Soviet 
espionage  agent  and  his  coworker.  Mr.  Hayhanen.  are  now  of  public 
record.  I  think  it  is  also  known  that  Colonel  Abel  had  in  his  possession 
two  or  three  birth  certificates  in  different  names  at  the  time  that  he 
was  arrested.  It  is  a  well  known  fact  that,  in  just  about  every  espionage 


case  throucrhout  the  world,  fraudulently  obtained  passports  are  in- 
volved. In  most  cases,  thev  do  not  involve  t^.S.  passports. 

It  has  recentlv  come  to  mv  attention  that  Mr.  J.  Bernard  Hutton, 
who  is  identified  as  "Former  Czecho  Comunist  Official"  has  written 
a  book  entitled,  "The  Subverters."  On  page  57  of  this  book,  he  relates 
how  one  Soviet  subverter  was  provided  with  a  U.S.  passport  to  enter 
the  United  States  from  Canada.  Prior  to  her  assignment  in  the  United 
States,  she  had  undergone  10  years  of  training  in  the  Soviet  Gaczyna 
Spy  School.  On  pages  79  and  80,  the  following  statement  appears : 

The  Gaczvna  Spy  School  provided  15  master-subverters  to  be  transported  to 
the  United  States  of  America  in  1961.  Every  year  after  that,  until  1966,  another 
15  joined  the  team.  In  1967,  1968,  and  1969,  the  number  of  master-subverters 
was  stepped  up  to  18— and  in  1970,  to  20.  This  formidable  army  of  profes-sionals 
has  at  its  disposal  many  AAidespread  networks  of  native-bom  hard-core  under- 
cover subverters  who  obey  orders  unquestioningly.  These  men  and  women  work 
ceaselessly  to  provoke  strikes  and  work-to-rule,  riots,  bomb  explosions,  arson, 
kidnapings  and  killings. 

It  is  reasonable  to  assume  that  U.S.  passports  were  used  to  get 
these  subverters  into  the  United  States.  It  is  not  improbable  that  the 
abilitv  of  these  subverters  to  get  a  U.S.  passport  to  enter  the  United 
States  may  be  the  final  test  of  his  passage  of  the  training  in  the  spy 

Off  the  record. 

[Discussion  off  the  record.] 

Now,  bearing  in  mind  these  interlocking  criminal  factors  on  the 
outside,  what  is  the  Passport  Office  doing  to  combat  fraud  ?  Tlie  Pass- 
port Office,  in  its  internal  fraud  seminars,  has  emphasized  its  philos- 
ophy that  identity  is  a  composite  of  a  number  of  factors:  it  cannot 
be  compressed  into  a  single  clocument  or  even  two  or  three  documents. 
A  person's  identity  is  factuallv  as  unique  as  his  fingerprints.  The  basic 
document  or  documents  of  identity  submitted  by  an  applicant,  such 
as  a  driver's  license  or  other  document  with  his  physical  description, 
constitute  merely  a  starting  point  to  be  considered  along  with  all  the 
other  information  furnished  by  the  applicant.  Careful  evaluation  of 
discovered  frauds  has  enabled  us  to  come  up  with  10  to  15  points  of 
reference  which  must  be  analyzed  by  the  person  adjudicating  a  pass- 
port application.  This  takes  time,  experience  and  alertness.  It  also 
takes  personnel  as  well  as  additional  facilities  to  reduce  the  pressure 
on  our  agents. 

My  memorandum  of  April  27,  1973  to  ]Miss  Knight — which  was 
inserted  in  the  Congressional  Eecord  of  June  28.  1973,  by  Senator 
Thurmond — clearlv  states  my  position  on  this  point. 

I  would  like  to  close  on  a  personal  note,  if  I  mav.  We  must  get  out  of 
the  horse  and  bugg>'  budget  harness  of  productivity  and  realistically 
look  at  the  problems  which  are  tearing  at  the  very  fibers  of  the  in- 
tegrity of  the  I^.S.  passport  and  the  passport  svstem.  If  we  do  not,  we 
will  become  second  best  rather  than  the  leader.  When  that  happens,  we 
will  have  a  more  and  more  unmanageable  securitv  problem.  After  33 
years,  I  call  the  shots  as  I  see  them.  Our  fraud  training  is  off  to  a  good 
start  but  it  is  only  a  start.  We  must  permeate  the  entire  system  of 
passport  issuance  here  and  abroad  with  the  program.  At  the  present 
time,  discussions  with  others  interested  in  the  identitv  field  indicates 
that  we  are  leaders  in  our  new  approach,  but  we  must  do  better. 


Mr.  SouRwiNE.  If  our  security  is  inadequate  it  is  not  because  we  are 
not  the  best.  But  if  the  best  is"^  not  good  enough ;  we  have  got  to  be- 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  SoTJRwixE.  Go  ahead. 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  We  are  the  best,  but  the  best  is  not  good  enough. 

We  have  to  do  better  or  we  will  be  victimized  in  the  future  by  the 
opposition  as  represented  bv  the  examples  given  in  this  statement. 
I^nless  T  get  the  staff  I  need  for  fiscal  years  1974  and  1975,  I  will  be 
as  effective  as  the  little  Dutch  boy  using  his  fingers  to  plug  the  many 
holes  in  the  dike. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  Have  you  made  your  request  of  the  Appropriations 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  Yes.  We  have  made  repeated  requests  for  additional 
personnel  to  the  Department. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  That  is  what  I  am  trving  to  cover  now.  Has  your 
request  gone  through  and  been  submitted  to  the  Congress  or  is  it  still 
with  the  Department  ? 

Mr.  DuGOAN.  It  is  with  the  Department. 

Mr.  SoTJRWixE.  Manv  times  we  come  up  against  a  situation,  some 
program  is  curtailed,  there  are  serious  results.  Congress  is  blamed 
because  they  did  not  provide  the  appropriation.  If  it  never  cleared  the 
Department,  was  not  presented  to  the  Congress,  you  cannot  blame  the 
Cona:ress,  can  you? 

Mr.  DuGGAX".  I  affree. 

Mr.  SouRw^ixE.  Now.  is  there  any  law  that  would  prohibit  vou  from 
putting  in  this  record  a  statement  of  what  you  asked  your  Depart- 
ment for? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  I  do  not  know  of  any  law  that  would  prohibit  it. 

Mr.  SouRWTXE.  If  there  is  no  law  ap-ainst  it,  I  would  like  to  ask  the 
Chair  that  that  be  the  order,  that  vou  furnish  us  with  a  statement  with 
respect  to  what  vou  have  asked  for  in  this  area  for  the  past  several 
years  and  the  coming  fiscal  year. 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  All  right. 

[The  material  referred  to  follows :] 

Statement  of  Legal  Division  Personnel  Requests  Over  the  Past  Sevebal 


To  put  in  proper  perspective  the  manpower  picture  for  the  Legal  Division  of  the 
Passport  Office  the  following  points  should  be  made  : 

(a)  Passport  Office  annual  budget  submissions  to  the  State  Department  include 
requests  for  new  personnel  positions.  Sometimes  these  requests  are  denied  in  total 
at  Departmental  level  or  are  reduced  in  quantity  before  the  submissions  reach 
the  Congress. 

(b)  Although  these  positions  are  justified  by  indicating  in  what  functions  of 
the  Passport  Office  they  are  to  be  utilized,  once  approved,  they  are  granted  in 
total  to  be  employed  wherever  most  needed.  Personnpl  positions  are  not  ear- 
marked to  be  used  in  specific  segments  of  the  Passport  Office. 

(c)  Becau<^e  of  the  increase  in  passport  fraud  cases  over  the  past  few  years, 
there  has  also  been  a  great  demand  for  increases  in  personnel  in  the  Legal  Divi- 
sion. As  a  matter  of  priority,  however,  emphasis  has  been  given  to  filling  Legal 
Division  personnel  requirements  fir.=!t  at  the  expense  of  other  activities  if  neces- 
sarv  even  thonch  all  other  workloads  in  the  Passport  Office  have  also  been  in- 
creasing steadily. 

(d)  Because  of  the  tremendous  expansion  in  fraud  control  workload,  the 
normal  means  of  reouesting  in  manpower,  namely  the  annual  budget 
cycle,   has  not   proven   sufficiently  successful   in  supplying  the  Legal  Division 


increased  personnel  requirements  in  a  timely  manner.  Consequently,  diversions 
of  manpower  from  other  lower  priority  functions  of  the  Passport  Office  to  the 
Legal  Division  have  been  necessary  from  time  to  time.  This  has  created  acute 
manpower  problems  throughout  the  Passport  Office  particularly  when  total  in- 
creased manpower  requests  made  by  the  Passport  Office  have  been  denied  or 
reduced  before  they  reach  the  Congress. 

(e)  Even  when  personnel  positions  are  authorized  for  hire  the  various  re- 
strictions, limitations  and  procedural  obstacles  which  must  be  surmounted  such 
as  Assistant  Secretarial  approvals  for  outside  hire,  stringent  quotas  on  clerical 
hire,  and  security  clearance  backlogs  have  prevented  bringing  new  personnel  on 
board  anywhere  near  as  rapidly  as  desired. 

The  following  table  graphically  illustrates  the  above  points  : 









Total  passport  Office  increases  requested.. 

Legal  division  increases  .eq'jested.. 

Total  Passport  Office  increases  authorized  or  proposed... 
Legal  division  increases  authorized  or  proposed 










8  18 


1  Passport  Office  request  reduced  from  49  to  29  by  the  controlling  bureau  in  the  State  Department. 

2  Passport  Office  request  reduced  from  36  tn  7  by  the  coniroljipg  bureau  in  the  State  Department. 

3  Passport  Office  request  reduced  from  102  to  18  hy  the  controlling  bureau  in  the  State  Department. 
J  Increased  by  one  by  Internal  Passport  Office  reprograniing. 

5  Projected  to  be  increased  by  3  by  Internal  Passport  Office  reprugraming. 

Mr.  Sour\vint:.  All  right.  Do  you  have  anything  else  to  offer  us 
voluntarily  ?  I  have  a  few  questions  I  want  to  ask  if  that  is  the  case. 

As  you  know,  we  were  particularly  interested  in  the  Brotherhood 
of  Eternal  Love,  the  so-called  Leary  family.  We  have  heard  testimony 
here  that  this  is  probably  the  largest  and  most  sophisticated  organiza- 
tions of  its  type  in  the  world.  We  have  been  told  that  some  750  brother- 
hood members  and  criminal  associates  have  been  identified  throughout 
the  world. 

Xow,  are  you  and  the  State  Department  aware  of  who  these  750 
brotherhood  members  are  ? 

INIr.  DuGGAN.  Do  we  have  that  list  ? 

Mr.  O'DowD.  We  have  a  list,  sir,  of  approximately  550  members  with 
aliases.  We  have  searched  all  the  names  through  the  passport  records. 
We  have  come  up  with  over  300  passport  files  relating  to  these  people. 
We  have  then  checked  the  birth  and  when  possible  the  identity  of  each 
of  these  individuals. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  I  am  going  afield  a  little  bit  but  I  am  following  what 
you  just  said.  Can  jou  provide  us  with  a  statement  that  will  show  year- 
by-year  begimiing  in  1970  the  number  of  passport  fraud  cases  detected 
which  involved  or  were  subsequently  identified  as  involving  members  of 
the  brotherhood  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  Yes. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  And  then  show  us  for  each  year  how  these  were 
detected  ?  They  are  detected  in  the  passport  office  or  by  BISTDD  or  in 
the  legal  division  or  office  of  security  or  FBI  or  however. 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  Correct. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  And  then  tell  us  in  how  many  of  those  cases  each 
year  there  were  counterfeit  birth  certificates. 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  Yes. 

23-538—73 5 


Mr.  SoTimwiNE.  And  in  how  many  of  each  of  those  years  there  were 
actual  birth  certificates  f  raiidulen.tly  presented. 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  Yes. 

Mr.  SouKwiNE.  Can  you  do  that  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  Yes. 

Mr.  SoTJRWiNE.  If  you  will  do  that  for  each  of  those  years,  1970, 19  i  1, 
1972, 1973  as  far  as  it  has  gone,  it  will  be  very  helpful. 

Mr.  DuGGAK.  We  will  be  glad  to. 

[The  material  referred  to  may  be  found  in  the  appendix,  p.  109.] 

Mr.  SoTTRWiNE.  We  can  iim  the  totals  up.  You  need  not  total  it  if  you 
can  give  us  that  information. 

Now%  the  question  I  asked  specifically  Avas  whether,  if  it  istrue  that 
750  brotherhood  members  and  criminal  associates  have  been  identified 
throughout  the  world,  shouldn't  you  Jaiow  the  identities  of  the  whole 
750  and  shouldn't  you  have  some  way  to  flag  them?  Do  you  have  a 
computer  system  for  flagging  them  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  That,  we  do. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Well,  shouldn't  these  people  be  in  your  computer 
system  for  flagging  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  They  should. 

Mr.  Sot-RwaxE.  Just  to  be  sure  you  do  not  issue  passports  to  anv  of 
them  ?  That  will  not  be^ — it  will  not  completely  insure  it  because  if  a 
man  comes  in  ^vith  a  new  identity  and  suppoi-ting  documents  and  gets 
by  the  persons  that  he  applies  to  he  is  going  to  get  a  passport  before 
you  ever  have  a  chance  to  stop  it. 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  May  I  make  one  statement.  Mr.  Sourwine?  Since  1969 
we  have  beeTi  working  with  BXDD  and,  of  course,  DEA  has  just  been 
created,  to  try  to  fui-ther  our  liaison  so  that  we  could  cooperate,  and 
we  have  extended  to  them  our  lookout  facilities. 

T\Ir.  SouRwiXE.  What  do  you  mean  by  "them"  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  And  we  are  furnished  with  the  ones  they  feel  should 
be  furnished. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  What  do  vou  mean  bv  "them"  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  BNDD. 

Mr.  Souravixe.  You  do  this  with  others.  You  Avill  accept  warnings 
from  an^'body  that  lias  information  that  will  be  useful  to  you. 

Mr.  DuGGAx.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  SouRWixE.  Any  Government  department  or  agency.  Hovv^  about 
warnings  from  cooperating  police  departments.  State,  and  Federal? 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  x\bsolutely. 

Mr.  SouRWiXE.  You  receive  them, 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  That  is  right. 

!Mr.  SouRWTXE.  And  you  get  a  good  deal  of  it.  do  you  7iot  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAX.  We  get  a  good  deal  of  it. 

Mr.  SorRAViXE.  Now.  specifically  with  regard — I  aiii  not  trying  to 
go  into  your  computer  system.  I  am  trying  to  get  at  this  brotherhood. 
Wo  were  told  there  are  750.  You  say  you  know  about  550  of  them. 
Who  is  holding  out  on  you  ?  Where  are  the  other  200  ? 

Mr.  O'DowD.  With  the  550,  sir — we  have  had  a  number  of  aliases. 
We  have  liad  a  number  of  parties  who  will  give  us  a  name  where  we 
have  not  located  the  passport  file  which  means  this  might  be  a  local 
distributor  purely  operating  in  California  or  he  may  have  a  passport 
in  a  name  they  are  not  yet  aware  of  and  we  are  not  yet  aware  of.  But 
we  have  searched  well  over  a  thousand  passport  files  altogther. 


Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Well,  you  li:ive  searched  well  over  a  thousand  but 
1  am  trying  to  get  down  to  the  point  of  whether  this  Government 
agency  which  tells  us  they  have  identified  750  brotherhood  members 
and  their  criminal  associates  has  given  you  the  list  of  the  750  or  they 
have  only  given  j^ou  550. 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  The  answer  is  no,  they  have  not. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Have  you  sought  it  'i 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  We  have  a  meeting  scheduled  for  Friday  with  a 
member  of  the  new  organization  and  this  I  will  take  up  with  him. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Do  you  have  any  doubts  you  are  going  to  get  it? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  I  do  not  think  there  will  be  any  doubt  that  I  will  get  it. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Mr.  Chairman,  may  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  in- 
structed if  he  does  not  get  it  or  make  satisfactory  arrangements  for 
getting  it,  if  lie  will  so  indicate  when  he  is  correcting  his  testimony. 

]Mr.  DuGGAN.  I  certainl}'  will. 

October  16,  1973. 

On  October  5,  1973,  I  had  a  meeting  with  Mr.  George  Belk,  Chief,  Intelligence 
Operations  of  the  Drug  Enforcement  Agency.  During  this  meeting  I  made  ar- 
rangements to  have  Mr.  Daniel  Casey,  Chief  of  Domestic  Operations  for  DEA, 
to  meet  with  me  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  the  list  of  all  the  members  of  the 
Brotherhood.  We  also  agreed  that  during  this  meeting  all  possible  avenues  of 
cooperation  be  explored. 

Mr.  Casey  and  I  have  tentatively  agreed  to  meet  the  latter  part  of  this  week 
or  the  first  part  of  next  week. 

]\Ir.  SouRWiNE.  All  right. 

Xow.  we  had  a  figure — I  think  it  is  a  little  out  of  date — of  85  mem- 
bers of  this  brotherhood  who  have  been  arrested  and  charged  with 
violations  relating  to  drugs,  income  tax,  or  fraudulent  passports.  Does 
this  vary  from  your  figure  ?  Do  you  have  a  different  figure  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  Well,  our  figure  was  only  related  to  j^assport  viola- 
tions and  our  figure  indicates  that  we  have  referred  42  cases  to  the 
U.S.  Attorney  with  regard  to  the  brotherhood.  Twenty-five  of  these 
have  been  indicted,  five  convicted,  and  three  declined. 

Mr.  Sour  WINE.  Well  now,  where  do  I  have  it  from  in  my  mind  that 
there  were  240  false  or  fraudulent  passport  cases  involved  with  mem- 
bers of  the  Leai-y  family,  that  is,  these  brotherhood  members? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  Well,  there  are  130  that  we  Imow  about.  Again,  there 
may  be  a  lack  of  commimication.  I  heard  tliis  morning  that  some  one 
person  got  as  man}^  as  five  passports. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  I  think  that  is  a  point.  Did  we  not  have  testimony 
from  you  or  from  someone  or  a  figure,  a  chart  from  someone  in  the 
Passport  Office  for  240  fraudulent  passport  cases  involved  with  the 
brotherhood?  That  would  include  the  duplications  if  there  are  four 
or  five  in  one  person  ? 

It  would  be  in  effect  if  that  figure  were  that  of  140  people  involved 
whom  you  knew  to  be  involved,  you  had  240  individual  passports. 
Some  of  them  have  two,  three,  four  or  more. 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  Our  figure  is  130. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Not  240. 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  No ;  our  figure  is  definitely  130. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Either  persons  or  passports  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  These  are  passport  violations. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Passport  violations,  involving  how  many  persons? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  How  many  persons?  I  think  the  figure  is  106. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  106  persons? 


]\Ir.  DuGGAN.  We  o:et  some  duplication  because  in  some  cases  there 
are  more  than  one  violation  of  the  passport  statutes. 

Mi:  SouKWiNE.  You  are  way  ahead  of  us  there  because  the  figure  we 
had,  I  think,  was  85  brotherhood  members  arrested  and  charged,  for 
all  violations  including  passport  violations. 

]Mr.  O'DowD.  We  do  not  have  that  many  who  we  know  have  been 
indicated  for  passport  fraud. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Well,  what  is  the  figure  you  just  gave  me  ? 
Mr.  O'DowD.  We  have  only  had  25  indictments  that  we  are  aware  of. 
Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Well,  you  have  got  140— you  said  your  fig-ure  was 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  These  are  violations. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  130  violations.  That  means  individual  passports 
were  fraud  cases. 
Mr.  DuGGAN,  Right. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Only  25  people  involved. 

Mr.  O'DowD.  No,  sir.  There  are  more  people  involved.  The  U.S. 
Attorneys  have  not  returned  indictments  on  some  of  them.  Others 
are  so  recent  we  have  not  had  a  chance  to  evaluate  and  record  them. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  To  clarify  this,  can  you  furnish  when  you  correct 
your  testimony,  the  most  up-to-date  possible  chart  showing  how  many 
members  of  the  brothei^hood  known  as  such  have  been  involved  in 
passport  fraud  cases,  How  many  total  pass]5ort  fraud  cases  have  been 
uncovered  that  are  comiected  with  the  brotherhood  ?  We  are  not  ask- 
ing you  to  say  how  many  passports  in  each  case  but  that  will  givp 
the  committee  an  idea.  That  is  just  two  figures.  Will  you  do  that? 
Mr.  DuGGAN.  Yes. 
Mr.  O'DowD.  Certainly. 

[The  figures  referred  to  may  be  found  in  the  table  on  p.  45] 
Mr.  SouRWiNE.  I  have  no  more  questions  to  ask  of  you  gentlemen. 
I  would  ask  you,  Mr.  Chairman,  in  line  with  what  you  said  previously, 
that  if  these  jrentlemen  have  finished,  that  Miss  Knight  come  back 
because  we  do  have  some  questions  to  ask  her.  We  will  hear  her  presen- 
tation in  response  to  the  earlier  request  and  then  I  have  some  ques- 
tions to  ask. 

Miss  Knight.  Well,  sir,  do  you  wish  me  to  bring  the  record  up  to 
date  on  the  contract  ? 

Mr.  So"DRWiNE.  Yes,  please. 

Miss  Knight.  As  I  said,  the  contract  was  awarded  to  Computer 
Science  Corp.  on  May  15, 1972.  The  contract,  vrhich  ran  for  1  year,  re- 
quired the  contractor  to  identify  all  of  the  problems  and  requirements 
associated  with  international  travel  documents,  and  on  the  basis  of 
an  analvsis  of  these  problems  and  requirements  to  recommend  a  new 
passport  document  and  new  and  improved  methods  for  its  issuance. 
Present  status.— On  the  basis  of  all  of  the  information  gathered  and 
analyzed  by  the  contractor  workins:  with  the  staff  of  the  Passport  Of- 
fice,"the  Government  Printing  Office  and  various  segments  of  private 
industry,  concepts  of  the  new  passport  were  developed  and  prototypes 
manufactured.  The  final  report  from  the  contractor  with  the  problems 
and  requirements  identified,  as  well  as  recommendations,  were  deliv- 
ered on  May  15,  1973.  After  a  careful  review  by  members  of  the  Pass- 
port Office  'Task  Force,  the  document  was  referred  to  the  Undersec- 
retary for  Security  Assistance  for  consideration.  The  details  in  the 


final  report  and  recommendations  arc  currentlj^  held  on  a  "need-to- 
know"  basis  in  order  to  preclude  misinformation,  misrepresentations 
and  other  o-uesswork  from  those  who  have  no  basic  knowledge  of  the 
criminal  conditions  which  give  this  project  a  sense  of  urgency.  Secu- 
rity of  the  document,  as  well  as  its  mission  to  establish  the  citizenship 
and  unalt  orable  identity  of  the  bearer  are  the  basic  guidelines  to  which 
we  have  adhered. 

If  a  new  passport  document  is  developed,  possessing  the  required 
security  and  international  acceptance  for  which  the  Passport  Office 
strives,  a  target  date  should  be  set.  As  of  January  1973,  the  Passport 
Office  considered  July  4,  1976  as  a  possible  starting  date  for  the 
issuance  of  a  new  and  improved  document.  Over  a  5-year  period,  the 
old  passports  would  be  phased  out  through  expirations.  This  timetable 
would  coincide  wdth  the  President's  program  for  the  Bicentennial. 
However,  thanks  to  delays  over  which  we  had  no  control  we  are  now 
quite  far  behind  in  our  schedule. 

The  next  12  months  will  be  critical  in  the  development  of  the 
document.  A  pilot  project  will  have  to  be  established  and  operated  in 
order  to  eliminate  the  bugs.  Personnel  will  be  required  not  only  to 
bring  the  Passport  Office  up  to  its  present  staff  requirements  but  an 
in-house  technical  staff  will  have  to  be  hired  to  work  with  outside 
contractors  on  the  project.  Currently,  the  Passport  Office  has  one  tech- 
nician on  its  staff.  V^e  have  no  researcliers  and  no  technical  employees 
available  to  man  the  pilot  project. 

I  have  no  idea,  and  I  hesitate  to  make  any  prediction,  regarding  the 
reception  of  our  5-year  effort  to  develop  a  passport  which  I  believe 
aould  become  the  model  for  a  standardized  international  travel  docu- 
ment adopted  by  scores  of  countries  who  seek  and  approve  of  stand- 
ardization in  size,  format,  and  content. 

One  more  thought,  if  you  please.  The  U.S.  passport  is  a  document 
belonging  to  the  Federal  Government  and  it  attests  to  the  citizenship 
and  identity  of  the  individual  to  whom  it  is  issued.  Any  legislation 
that  will  help  enhance  the  security  and  integrity  of  this  valuable 
document  is  of  tremendous  importance  to  us  at  this  time. 

Documentation  fraud  v:  rnmpant  in  this  country  not  only  in  those 
documents  which  are  submitted  with  passport  applications  but  those 
submitted  for  social  security,  for  health  benefits,  for  pensions,  for 
almost  any  service  or  financial  proifit  which  can  be  chiseled  out  of  tlie 
Federal  Government.  The  Immigration  and  Naturalization  Service 
has  had  a  horrendous  fraud  problem  for  years,  and  no  one  knows 
this  better  than  the  immigration  lawyers  who  admit  it,  off  the  record, 
of  course. 

Mr.  SouRv/iNE.  Miss  Knight,  I  might  interject  to  say  that  perhaps 
this  committee  knows  it  almost  as  well  as  the  immigration  lawyers. 
We  have  been  making  a  record  of  these  problems  since  1942  to  my 
knowledge  under  this  committee  and  under  the  Immigration  Sub- 
committee of  the  Judiciary  Committee,  and  it  has  always  been  a 
serious  security  problem  and  it  has  always  been  a  mess. 

Please  go  ahead. 

Miss  KxTOHT.  Thank  you.  sir. 

Visa  frauds  also  need  a  microscropic  examination.  _ 

Scores  of  Washington  hostesses  are  hiring  full-time  domestic  help 
who  came  in  on  student  visas  but  who  never  set  foot  in  a  classroom. 


As  one  very  prominent  socialite  in  our  Capital  pointed  ont  "I  do  not 
want  to  know  how  they  aet  into  this  country." 

There  is  a  thriviiig  business  in  the  marriage  racket  whereby  a 
U.S.  citizen  will  marry  an  alien  for  a  substantial  down  payment, 
bring  the  alien  into  the  United  States  as  a  dependent,  apply  for  citizen- 
ship^ apply  for  a  passport,  get  a  social  security  number,  get  a  job  and 
finish  tlie  farce  by  getting  a  divorce,  thus  freeing  the  U.S.  citizen 
for  another  marrying  project. 

There  is  also  a  substantial  baby  racket,  details  of  which  can  only 
be  pieced  together  with  the  cooperation  of  other  governments.  Phony 
hospital  records  can  be  provided  for  a  price  and  a  cliild  brought  into 
the  TTnited  States  only  to  bo  farmed  ont  again  for  a  fee  to  a  childless 
couple  who  do  not  wish  to  go  through  legal  adoption  channels. 

Years  ago  document  frauds  were  estimated  to  co=^t  the  U.S.  Govern- 
ment a  half  billion  dollars  annually  in  the  loss  of  taxes.  Today,  the 
cost  may  be  doubled,  maybe  trebled.  The  hidden  total  is  anybody's 
guess — and  this  tremendous  drain  of  revenue  must  be  made  up  by 
every  American  who  conscientious^  y  pays  his  taxes. 

]Mr.  SouRWiNE.  If  I  understand  you  correctly,  you  are  saying  that 
document  frauds  today  in  your  opinion,  are  costing  the  U.S.  Govern- 
ment between  a  billion  dollars  and  a  billion  and  a  half  dollars  annually. 

Miss  Knight.  Yes.  sir. 

Mr.  SouRwiXE.  Go  ahead. 

jSIiss  Kntght.  The  appalling  fact  is  that  most  of  our  citizens  are 
abysmally  igiiorant  of  the  facts.  They  are  constantly  being  diverted 
to  "other  matters,  relatively  unimportant  when  placed  in  juxtaposition 
to  the  existing  strata  of  crooks  and  criminals  operating  in  American 

If  firm  and  stern  corrective  action  is  taken  nationally  perhaps  the 
States  will  get  busy  and  tighten  up  access  to  their  birth  and  death 
records.  Other  countries  have  had  national  registration  for  years- 
birth  and  death  records  are  married — and  while  there  will  always  be 
some  fraud  attempted — I  doubt  that  there  is  another  country  as  lacka- 
daisical in  protecting  the  integrity  of  its  vital  records  as  we  are.  Only 
Congress  has  the  key  to  flushing  out  this  nationwide  racket  in  fraudu- 
lent documents. 

IVfr.  SoTTRwiNE.  That,  of  course,  has  to  be  recognized.  You  had  spoken 
earlier  of  the  States  getting  busy  to  relate  their  birth  and  death  rec- 
ords. I  am  sure  you  realize,  as  your  last  sentence  indicates,  that  the 
States  cannot  do'this  because  it  is  of  no  value  if  the  State  of  Alabama 
shows  vou  evervbody  born  there  and  everybody  who  died  there  when 
two-thirds  of  the  people  who  were  born  there  died  somewhere  else 
and  two-thirds  of  the  people  who  died  there  were  born  somewhere  else, 
which  may  or  may  not  be  the  fact.  There  would  have  to  be  a  complete 
correlation,  a  national  registration,  or  else  the  proiect  of  the  com- 
puterization and  correlation  of  all  the  birth  and  death  records  of  all  the 
States  which  would  be  a  stupenrlous  task. 

Miss  Kntght.  Yes,  sir;  but  it  may  pay  off  in  less  document  fraud. 

Mr.  SoTTRWiNE.  Are  you  recommending  that  this  be  done  or  only 
that  we  start  a  national  registration  and  try  to  achieve  a  national 
record  of  evervbodv  ? 

Miss  Kntght.  "Well,  I  think  it  should  be  looked  into  and  all  the  facts 
assessed.  At  the  present  time  there  is  no  area  in  the  Federal  Govern- 


meiit,  there  is  no  area  in  any  of  the  State  governments,  tliat  is  bringing 
all  these  facts  together  so  that  they  can  be  studied. 

Mr.  SoTJRWiNE.  No.  You  have  a  birth  certificate  of  an  individual. 
You  have  no  way  of  knowing  if  the  individual  is  still  alive  unless  you 
have  personal  knowledge.  You  have  a  death  certificate.  You  have  no 
way  of  knowing  that  the  person  was  born  inider  that  name  or  where. 

Miss  Knight.  You  are  right. 

Mr.  SouRwixE.  This  is  perfectly  true.  All  you  are  asking  is  that 
something  be  done  about  it. 

Miss  Knight.  Yes,  sir.  Some  effective  coordination  is  essential. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  That  it  be  recognized  as  a  threat  to  security,  not  only 
in  the  passport  area,  I  take  it,  but  in  other  areas  as  well. 

Miss  Knight.  I  also  think,  sir,  that  we  owe  a  system  of  identity  with 
integrity  to  our  citizens. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  All  right.  Go  ahead.  I  am  sorry  I  interrupted  you. 

Miss  Knight.  There  is  no  use  denying  the  fact  that  those  of  us  who 
are  exposed  to  the  machinations  of  the  criminal  element  in  this  coun- 
try, are  frustrated  and  discouraged  by  the  lack  of  action  on  our  re- 
peated warnings  to  the  dangers  of  fraudulent  documents  submitted  to 
the  Federal  and  State  governments  for  the  purpose  of  supporting  false 
identification.  As  I  pointed  out  in  my  September  15,  1972,  testimony, 
the  Passport  Office  has  been  ringing  the  alarm  on  passport  and  identi- 
fication fraud  for  43  years.  I  can  testify  to  the  fact  that  in  the  past  15 
years,  while  I  have  been  Director  of  the  Passport  Office,  we  have  tried 
every  Imovrn  method  to  get  som.eone  in  the  Department  of  State  to  pay 
some  attention  to  tliis  very  serions  problem.  The  only  result  of  our  per- 
sistent efforts  hasbeen  that  the  situation  has  deteriorated  almost  beyond 
description  and  redemption  within  the  past  decade. 

It  is  a  fact  on  record  that  I  have  repeatedly  requested  personnel  to 
combat  the  growing  workload  and  attendant  fraud  situation.  We  have 
spent  a  great  deal  of  time  attomi^ting  to  get  our  message  across  and 
making  recommendations  to  the  t)epartment  of  State  through  budget 
presentations,  through  conferences  and  reports  and  memoranda  which 
are  rarely,  if  ever,  favorably  acted  upon.  There  has  been  little  or  no  evi- 
dence of  support  or  even  a  casual  interest  in  our  problem.  The  cost  of 
this  neglect  cannot  be  overestimated. 

If  we  ever  could  get  effective  support,  there  are,  in  my  estimation, 
some  immediate  and  long-term  remedies.  For  instance : 

1.  The  enactment  of  legislation  which  would  make  it  a  criminal  of- 
fense for  any  organization  or  individual  to  apply  for  or  procure  any 
identification  pertaining  to  another  person  for  the  purpose  of  estab- 
lishing by  such  identification  a  false  identity.  This  would  coyer  the  cur- 
rent misuse  of  birth  and  baptismal  certificates,  driver's  licenses  and 
other  identifying  documents  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  illegally 
passports  and  other  benefits  from  the  Federal  Government. 

2.  It  should  be  remembered  that  passport  applications  come  to  us 
thiough  the  mail  and  any  legislation  contemplated  should  take  note  of 
the  fact  that  the  Postal  "Service  is  thus  involved  in  the  transmittal  of 
the  fraudulent  documents. 

3.  The  Passport  Office  must  be  supported  in  its  staffing  requirements. 
"We  cannot  go  through  another  year  of  mounting  workload,  directly 
and  indirectly  related  to  the  issuance  of  passports.  Meat-axe  cuts  of 
essential  security  and  public  services,  which  pay  for  themselves  many 

times  over,  are  not  justified  at  any  time,  but  they  are  especially  ob- 
noxious when  compared  to  the  waste  of  time  and  manpower  in  the 
duplication  of  effort  and  unessential  paperwork  which  we  see  at  the 
echelons  above  us. 

4,  The  Passpoi't  Office  must  be  supported  in  its  requirements  for 
prompt  and  thorough  investigation  of  the  fraud  cases  which  presently 
we  forward  to  the  Department's  Office  of  Security.  In  my  opinion,  we 
cannot  and  should  not  be  forced  to  wait  6  months  or  a  year  or  2  years 
for  investigations  of  violations  of  passport  criminal  statutes.  I  want  to 
make  it  clear  that  I  am  not  blaming  the  Office  of  Security  for  the  long 
delays.  That  office  is  understaffed  according  to  its  Director.  The  Office 
of  Security  has  felt  the  axe  as  lias  the  Passport  Office.  Now,  if  the  De- 
partment of  State  cannot  handle  these  investigations  promptly,  I  sug- 
gest that  the  investigative  process  on  passport  frauds  be  transferred 
to  some  other  area  of  Government  which  can  do  the  job  expeditiously 
and  i:)rofessionally. 

5.  The  Passport  Office  services  to  U.S.  citizens  must  be  expanded 
through  new  field  agencies  and  facilities.  I  have  been  recommending 
this  solution  to  our  situation  for  5  years  and  for  5  years  it  has  been 
denied — not  by  the  Congress  but  within  the  bureaucratic  machinations 
of  the  annual  intradepartmental  budget  hearings.  In  these  exercises 
everybody  acts  as  an  expert  and  seer  on  the  matter  under  discussion 
and  arbitrary  decisions  are  made  by  officials  who  have  little  or  no  ex- 
perience in  the  problems  of  a  line  operation.  "We  have  now  spent  close 
to  a  quarter  of  a  million  dollars  on  research  and  development  con- 
tracts to  get  independent  confirmation  of  many  of  the  recommenda- 
tions made  by  the  passport  office  over  the  years.  We  know  what  is 
needed.  Our  recommendations  are  based  on  facts,  experience  and  prece- 
dence. But  our  warnings  and  recommendations  and  suggestions  have 
fallen  on  deaf  ears.  We  seem  to  be  operating  in  a  "Let  them  eat  cake" 

That  is  about  all  I  have  to  say,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  SoTjRWiNE.  Miss  Knight,  I  have  just  a  few  questions,  if  the 
chair  will  permit. 

Can  you  furnish  us  for  the  record,  with  a  statement  tabulating  j^our 
budget  requests  in  the  passj^ort  security  field  and  what  the  Depart- 
ment submitted  to  the  Congress  and  what  the  Congress  gave  you  ? 

Miss  KisriGHT.  I  can — I  would  be  very  glad  to  submit  the  Passport 
Office  budget  requests. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Yes. 

Miss  Knight.  But  when  you  specify  security  field,  there  is  an  Office 
of  Security  in  the  Department. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  I  understand  that,  but  I  am  talking  about — if  you 
want  to  submit  your  total  budget,  that  is  all  right,  but  I  was  only 
asking  for  what  you  had  requested  that  bore  on  this  area  of  passport 

Miss  Knight.  Yes,  sir ;  we  can  furnish  that.  Virtually  every  phase 
of  our  operation  has  a  security  aspect. 

[The  material  requested  may  be  found  in  the  appendix,  p.  111.] 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Now,  that  would  be  in  some  instances  personnel.  In 
some  instances  it  will  be  equipment.  In  some  instances  it  will  be  field 
security.  And  then,  you  requested  several  times  before  you  got  it, 
money  for  this  passport  study  and  I  do  not  know,  you  may  have  in 


your  budget  now  money  to  implement  the  passport  study.  We  want  to 
know  what  you  requested  up  to  this  coming  fiscal  year,  what  the  De- 
partment has  cleared  insofar  if  they  have  cleared  anything,  and  what 
the  Congress  gave  you. 

JSIiss  Knight.  We  can  supply  that. 

[The  material  requested  may  be  found  in  the  appendix,  p.  114.] 

Mr.  Sourwt:ne.  We  will  see  if  you  are  being  shorted  and  who  is 
doing  the  shorting,  whether  it  is  the  Congress  or  somebody  else. 

Now,  you  spoke  of  the  Office  of  Security.  What  have  you  done  in 
the  way  of  calling  on  them  for  help  ? 

Miss'  Knight.  Well,  I  think  Mr.  Duggan  can  answer  that  because 
he  has  liad  contact  with  the  security  office.  We  have  sent  memoranda 
to  the  Office  of  Security  and  I  think  the  latest  go  around  has  been 
initiated  in  ]Mr.  Duggan's  shop. 

]Mr.  Duggan.  Previous  communications  are  in  Miss  Knight's  testi- 
mony of  September  15  before  the  subcommittee.  On  May  11,  1973,  a 
memorandum  was  sent  to  SY  in  which  we  stated  as  follows. 

Mr.  SouKV/iNE.  Do  you  have  a  copy  of  that  memorandum  ? 

Mr.  Duggan.  Yes. 

Mr.  SouKwiNE.  Furnish  it  to  go  in  at  this  point. 

Mr.  Duggan.  Yes. 

[The  information  referred  to  follows :] 

U.S.  Government,  Memorandum 

Mat  11,  1973. 
To :  A/SY/— Mr.  Donald  D.  Daley  A/SY/I/PVB. 
From  :  PT/L — W.  E.  Dnggan. 
Subject :  Passport  fraud,  fugitives. 

The  Passport  OflSce  is  seriously  concerned  with  three  categories  of  passport 
fraud  cases  which  have  been  pending  in  the  OflBce  of  Security  for  two  or  more 
years  with  no  end  in  view. 
These  categories  are : 

1.  Cases  referred  to  SY  for  investigation  over  two  years  ago  and  on  which  no 
substantial  inquiries  have  been  made  by  your  agents  ; 

2.  Cases  in  which  all  investigatory  leads  have  been  unsuccessfully  explored 
without  locating  or  identifying  the  applicants  or  witnesses  necessary  to  prove 
violations  of  passport  laws  ;  and 

3.  Fugitive  cases — a  case  in  which  prosecution  has  been  thwarted  because  the 
perpetrator's  whereabouts  is  unknown. 

In  the  interest  of  both  Offices,  it  is  requested  that  all  special  agents  be  in- 
structed to  immediately  close  out  and  returned  the  passport  files  with  closing 
reports  to  the  Passport  Office  in  categories  1  and  2  which  have  been  pending 
in  SY  for  more  than  two  (2)  years.  The  closing  report  may  cite  this  memo- 
randum as  authority  for  closing  the  investigations. 

Cases  in  category  3 — prosecution  is  not  possible  because  the  perpetrator  is  a 
fugitive  or  the  U.S.  Attorney  has  not  acted  on  the  case  within  a  period  of  one 
year  due  to  a  heavy  workload.  These  cases  should  be  returned  to  the  Passport 
Office  with  a  closing  report  only  if  a  federal  felony  warrant  for  the  fugitive's 
arrest  has  been  secured  and  is  outstanding.  A  copy  of  the  warrant  should  be 
submitted  with  the  case. 

If  warrants  of  arrest  have  not  been  obtained  in  such  cases,  it  is  essential  and 
it  is  urged  that  your  agents  personally  visit  the  United  States  Attorneys  as- 
signed to  prosecute  the  cases  and  explain  to  them  that : 

1.  Under  the  provisions  of  51.70(a),  of  Title  22,  Code  of  Federal  Regulations, 
the  Passport  Office  has  authority  to  deny  a  passport  to  the  subject  of  an  out- 
standing federal  felony  warrant  of  arrest.  Section  51.71  of  Title  22  provides 
for  the  revocation  of  passports  obtained  by  applicants  in  false  identities.  Thus, 
in  the  absence  of  a  felony  warrant  of  arrest,  the  Passport  Office  cannot  lav^^ully 
refuse  to  issue  a  passport  based  on  an  application  executed  by  a  fugitive  in 
his  true  identity. 


2.  In  order  to  record  the  fng:itives'  names  with  the  National  Crime  Infor- 
mation Center,  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation,  the  Center  requires  that  the 
felonv  warrants  of  arrest  be  outstanding. 

3.  The  Passport  Office  records  the  names  of  violators  of  passport  and  other 
federal  laws  and  sends  appropriate  notifications  to  all  diplomatic  and  consular 
posts  abroad.  This  procedure  often  results  in  locating  such  fugitives. 

4.  The  revocation  of  a  passport  based  on  an  outstanding  federal  felony  warrant 
of  arrest  and  the  notification  to  a  foreign  government  of  the  reason  for  the 
revocation  generally  immobilizes  a  located  fugitive  and  hinders  any  further 
criminal  activities  by  him.  In  addition,  when  the  fugitive  returns  to  the  United 
States,  a  U.S.  Marshal  may  be  alerted  and  have  the  authority  to  apprehend 
the  fugitive  on  arrival. 

5.  The  issuance  of  a  warrant  of  arrest  for  a  fugitive  would  toll  the  statute 
of  limitations.   (18USC3291) 

Your  agents  should  urge  U.S.  Attorneys  to  secure  the  issuance  of  warrants 
so  that  all  prosecutions  involving  fugitives  which  have  been  pending  more  than 
one  year  may  be  closed  out  on  or  before  June  30,  1973.  The  agent  should  assure 
the  United  States  Attorney  that  when  the  fugitive  is  apprehended,  the  case 
^ill  be  immediately  returned  to  him  for  prosecution. 

Your  cooperation  in  instructing  Special  Agents-in-Charge  to  review  eases 
under  their  jurisdiction  to  comply  with  the  foregoing,  will  be  appreciated. 

Enclosures :  100  copies  for  distribution  to  your  special  agents. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Did  you  get  a  reply  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAisr.  Yes. 

Mr.  SoTjRwiNE.  Is  there  any  subsequent  interchange  of  memoranda? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  Yes.  I  have  about  four  memos. 

Mr.  SoiTRWiNE.  May  we  haA^e  the  whole  set  ? 

Mr.  DuGGAN.  We  will  be  glad  to  furnish  the  whole  set. 

[The  memoranda  follows:] 

September  IS,   1973. 
A/SY— Mr.   G.   Marvin   Gentile 
PPT— Frances  G.  Knight 

(1)  Passport  Fraud  Case  of  Timothy  Francis  Leary  alias  William  .John  Mc- 

Neills and  Rosemary  Leary  alias  Sylvia  Edith  McGaffin. 

(2)  Delinquent   Passport   Fraud   Investigations 

On  February  8,  1973,  Mr.  William  E.  Duggan  of  the  Passport  Office's  Legal  Di- 
vision sent  a  memorandum  to  A/SY,  Mr.  Robert  L.  Berry,  requesting  a  prompt 
inve'=;tigation  looking  toward  the  prosecution  of  Dr.  Timothy  Francis  Leary. 
Mr.  Duggan  attached  to  his  memorandum  a  comprehensive  summary  of  the  case 
including  an  analysis  of  the  information  adduced  from  a  manuscript  of  a  book 
which  Leary  allegedly  intended  to  publish.  SY  has  to  date  failed  to  forward  any 
report  written  or  verbal  to  the  Passport  Office  in  this  matter. 

The  international  importance  of  this  notorious  individual  in  the  illegal  drug 
field  hardly  needs  any  explanation.  Nor  does  the  urgency  of  our  request  for  in- 
vestigation into  his  passport  activities  need  further  justification.  The  failure  of 
the  Office  of  Security  to  pursue  this  investigation  is,  to  put  it  mildly,  in- 

The  manuscript  attached  to  Mr.  Duggan's  memorandum  was  extensively  evalu- 
ated and  an  analysis  prepared  by  the  Passport  Office.  This  manuscript  was  orig- 
inally obtained  by  SY  at  the  request  of  PPT.  The  manuscript  with  minor  changes 
has  now  been  nublished  in  an  edition  entitled  Timothy  Leary — Confessions  of  a 
Hope  Fiend.  The  book  was  published  in  .July  1973  by  Bantam  Books,  Inc.  As 
exr>ectpd,  this  book  outlines  in  detail  the  circumstances  under  which  Leary  and 
his  wife  obtained  United  States  passports  in  false  identities.  Given  this  fact, 
the  failure  of  the  Office  of  Security  to  conduct  the  investigation  requested  in 
Mi-.  Duggan's  memorandum  of  February  8.  1973  is,  in  my  mind,  a  clear  case  of 
negligence  in  the  administration  of  the  passport  criminal  statutes.  The  onus  of 
such  neglisence  falls  directly  on  the  Office  of  Security.  While  I  am  aware  of  the 
personnel  shortages  in  the  Office  of  Security.  T  cannot  and  will  not  permit  any 
criticism  for  the  failure  to  pursue  this  important  passport  fi-aud  case  to  be 
placed  on  the  Passport  Office. 

I  refer  to  my  memornnduni  to  you  of  .Tune  Ifi.  1972.  which  was  published  as  an 
attochiucnt  to  my  testimony  of  Septeml)er  15.  1972  at  a  hearing  held  by  the 
Subcommittee  to  Investigat?  the  Administration  of  the  Internal  Security  A.ct 


and  Other  Internal  Security  Laws  of  the  Committee  on  the  Judiciary,  United 
States  Senate,  92nd  Congress,  2nd  Session.  I  also  refer  to  my  memorandum  to  you 
of  August  9,  1972  which  was  also  published  as  an  attachment  to  my  testimony 
of  September  15, 1972.  In  your  reply  of  August  17, 1972,  you  stated  : 

"I  can  assure  you  that  SY  will  make  every  effort  to  reduce  the  current 
delinquency  during  the  upcoming  fall  months  when  the  applicant  case  load 
is  normally  lighter." 
It  is  over  a  year  since  your  reply  and  I  must  state  that  the  results  of  your 
"effort  to  reduce  the  current  delinquency"  in  passport  cases  are  hardly  stimu- 

In  response  to  a  request  from  Senator  Strom  Thurmond,  I  informed  him  that 
the  investigation  backlog  as  of  April  24,  1973  was  501.  As  of  August  8,  1973, 
there  were  582  passport  fraud  investigation  cases  pending  in  SY.  These  workload 
figures  break  dov.-n  as  follows : 

Apr.  24, 1973       Aug.  8, 1973 

Cases  opened  in  1973.. _ -— 165  249 

Cases  opened  prior  Jan.  1,  1973 336  333 

Total  pending. 

501  582 

These  figures  will  differ  in  minor  respects  from  SY  figures.  This  difference  is 
caused  by  the  hiatus  between  the  time  cases  are  actually  received  and  docu- 
mented as  opened  or  closed  in  SY  and  the  time  they  are  actually  received  and 
documented  as  opened  or  closed  in  PPT.  This  is  a  normal  "pipeline"  difference. 
While  I  could  go  on  indefinitely  with  horrible  examples  of  delinquent  cases, 
let  me  just  refer  to  one  additional  item.  On  May  11,  1973,  Mr.  Duggan  sent  a 
memorandum  to  Mr.  Donald  D.  Daley,  A/SY,  the  purpose  of  which  is  stated  as 
follows : 

"The  Passport  OflSee  is  seriously  concerned  with  three  categories  of  pass- 
port fraud  cases  which  have  been  pending  in  the  Oflice  of  Security  for  two 
or  more  years  with  no  end  in  view. 
These  categories  are : 

1.  Cases  referred  to  SY  for  investigation  over  two  years  ago  and  on 
which  no  substantial  inquiries  have  been  made  by  your  agents ; 

2.  (^"ases  in  which  all  investigatory  leads  have  been  unsuccessfully  ex- 
plored without  locating  or  identifying  the  applicants  or  witnesses  necessary 
to  prove  violations  of  passport  laws ;  and 

3.  Fugitive  cases — a  case  in  which  prosecution  has  been  thwarted  because 
the  perpetrator's  whereabouts  is  unknown." 

One  hundred  copies  of  this  memorandum  were  given  to  SY  for  your  conven- 
ience for  distributing  them  to  your  special  agents.  It  was  requested  that  this 
review  of  old  cases  be  completed  by  June  30,  1973.  On  July  26,  1973,  Mr.  Robert 
D.  Johnson,  Deputy  Director,  Passport  OSice,  sent  a  memorandum  to  Mr.  Daley 
extending  the  due  date  to  July  31,  1973.  This  was  done  at  the  specific  request  of 
Mr.  Raymond  Scroggs  of  your  office.  On  July  30,  1973.  Mr.  Scroggs  telephoned 
Mr.  James  Ritchie,  Passport  Office,  and  stated  that  SY  could  not  comply  with 
the  extended  due  date  of  July  31,  1973,  due  to  other  commitments.  On  August  2, 
1973,  Mr.  Johnson  sent  Mr.  Daley  a  memorandum  requesting  the  Office  of  Secur- 
ity to  submit  a  memorandum  within  ten  days  stating  the  reasons  for  the  failure 
to  comply  with  the  due  date  for  this  review.  On  August  8,  1973,  Mr.  Daley  sent 
a  memorandum  to  Mr.  Johnson  giving  the  following  explanation : 

"Please  be  advised  that  a  continuing  effort  is  being  made  to  comply  with 
your  request  of  May  11,  1973.  The  delay  in  obtaining  full  compliance  with 
your  request  has  been  unavoidable.  Over  the  past  few  months,  we  have  had 
to  align  our  priorities  to  the  unusual  demand  for  protective  services,  and 
urgent  personnel  investigations.  Also,  we  have  had  retirements  of  key  offi- 
cers, which  resulted  in  several  disruptive  transfers. 

"On  July  30,  197.3,  Mr.  Ritchie  was  advised  of  the  above  by  Mr.  Scroggs.  At 
which  time,  Mr.  Scroggs  told  Mr.  Ritchie  that  every  effort  would  be  made 
to  complete  the  requested  action  by  September  1,  1973." 
As  of  this  date,  September  17,  1973,  while  some  progress  has  been  made,  the 
project  has  stiU  not  been  completed.  I  think  you  will  agree  that  any  comment 
on  this  item  from  me  would  be  entirely  superfluous.  The  facts  speak  for  them- 


Despite  authorization  from  PPT  to  terminate  old  investigations,  as  of  Sep- 
tember 1,  1973.  SY  was  further  behind  in  pending  investigations  than  at  the 
beginning  of  the  year.  For  the  first  eight  calendar  months  of  1973,  PPT  sent  292 
cases  to  SY  for  investigation.  During  this  same  period,  SY  completed  210  cases. 
This  is  an  increase  of  82  pending  cases. 

In  the  light  of  the  facts,  I  must  demand  an  immediate  explanation.  If  the  Office 
of  Security  is  unable  to  take  positive  action  within  the  next  thirty  days  to  per- 
form its  responsibilities  to  investigate  known  and  suspected  violations  of  the 
passport  criminal  statutes  promptly  and  effectively,  I  see  no  alternative  but  to 
recommend  to  the  Acting  Deputy  Under  Secretary,  Dr.  Curtis  W.  Tarr,  that  the 
passport  fraud  investigation  function  be  turned  over  to  the  Passport  Office.  In 
view  of  the  success  of  the  field  agents  of  the  Office  of  Security  in  investigating 
passport  frauds  in  the  past  when  they  were  permitted  to  do  so,  I  am  most  re- 
luctnnt  to  take  this  action.  Y'>u  must  understand  that,  by  reason  of  my  position 
as  Director  of  the  i'asspoit  Oiiice,  I  must  ensure  that  the  integrity  and  security 
of  the  United  States  passport  is  constantly  maintained  by  swift  and  efficient 
detection,  investigation,  and  indictment  of  persons  violating  the  passport  crim- 
inal statutes.  On  the  basis  of  the  facts  at  hand,  I  see  no  other  recourse. 

Please  let  me  know  before  September  24,  1973,  what  action  you  intend  to  take. 

Department  of  State, 
Washington,  D.O.,  Scptcmher  2^,  191S. 

To :  PPT— Miss  Frances  G.  Knight 
From  :  A/SY— G.  Marvin  Gentile 
Subject : 

(1)  Passport  Fraud  Case  of  Timothy  Francis  Leary  alias  William  .John 

McNeills  and  Rosemary  Leary  alias  Sylvia  Edith  McGaffin 

(2)  Delinquent  Passport  Fraud  Investigations 

Reference  is  made  to  your  memorandum  of  September  18,  1973  regarding  the 
indicated  Subject.  As  defined  in  previous  responses,  SY  has  not  been  in  a  position 
to  respond  to  service  requests  from  your  office  because  of  overall  priority  requests 
from  other  areas  of  the  Department. 

As  you  were  previously  advised  on  August  17,  1972,  the  SY  delinquency  in  the 
investigation  of  passport  fraud  cases  has  been  caused  by  such  factors  as  the 
heavy  deluge  of  applicant  cases  received  by  SY  during  the  early  part  of  the  year 
(  include  summer  hires,  interns,  and  Passport  Office  peak  cases)  and  several 
high  priority  security  requirements  in  other  aspects  of  the  total  security  program. 
SY  lost  twenty  one  positions  in  the  personnel  cut  effective  June  30,  1972.  In  April 
1973  this  office  was  authorized  to  fill  existing  vacancies,  and  recruitment  was 
immediately  started.  Processing  foreign  service  candidates  is  most  difficult,  and 
it  will  take  several  months  for  SY  to  reach  its  authorized  manpower  structure. 
We  have  the  pipeline  established,  and  officers  are  finally  being  placed  in  positions, 
but  there  is  training  time  involved,  perhaps  12  to  18  months,  when  the  criminal 
nature  of  Passport  Fraud  investigations  is  concerned. 

SY  has  been  intimately  concerned  with  the  problems  of  terrorism  to  include 
hi-jackings.  letter  bombs,  kidnappings  and  murders  of  principal  officers  pre- 
dating the  Khartoum  tragedy.  This  problem,  as  you  know,  must  take  first  priority. 
SY  has  also  been  heavily  engaged  in  the  protection  of  foreign  visitors,  particularly 
those  from  the  People's  Republic  of  China. 

The  licarv  case  was  first  brought  to  the  attention  of  SY  by  an  oral  request 
from  PPT/buggan  on  October  7,  1970.  Mr.  Duggan  requested  that  SY  verify 
birth  records  in  names  used  by  the  Ueary's  when  they  obtained  passports  which 
they  used  to  flee  the  United  States.  The  information  was  obtained  on  an  urgent 
basis  and  oral  reports  were  made  to  :\Ir.  Duggan  on  October  30,  1970  and  Novem- 
ber 6,  1970.  These  oral  reports  were  followed  by  formal  written  reports. 

Tlie  first  written  request  from  PPT  office  concerning  Dr.  Leary  was  dated 
September  17.  1971  which  requested  that  SY  obtain  a  copy  of  a  manuscript 
allegedlv  prepared  by  Dr.  Leary.  The  attempts  to  obtain  the  manusr-ript  from  the 
publishers  proved  uiisuccessful.  however,  the  Department's  interest  in  the  manu- 
script was  reported  in  New  York  Times  of  October  10,  1971.  A  detailed  report 
on  SY's  efforts  to  obtain  the  manuscript  was  sent  to  the  Passport  Office  on 
October  10.  1971. 

On  October  18,  1971  the  Passport  Office  requested  SY  to  vertify  Leary's  driver's 
license  and  to  interview  the  real  McNellis  (name  used  by  Leary).  On  October  22. 
1971.  the  San  Francisco  Field  Office  reported  on  this  request. 


On  Jauuarv  14,  1972  the  New  York  Field  Office  received  an  unsolicited  call  from 
a  person  who  had  read  of  the  State  Department's  interest  in  Dr.  Leary's  manu- 
script This  person  volunteered  to  turn  over  a  copy  of  the  manuscript  to  SY.  The 
manuscript  was  obtained  by  SY  and  forwarded  to  the  Passport  Office  on  January 
19  1972 

On  March  1,  1972  the  San  Francisco  Field  Office  closed  the  case  and  except  for 
Subject's  connection  with  the  "Brotherhood"  investigation,  our  interest  in  Dr. 
Leary  was  terminated.  . 

On  January  18,  1973  Dr.  Leary,  who  had  escaped  from  state  prison  near  ban 
Luis  Abispo,  California  on  September  12,  1970  and  had  fled  the  United  States 
using  a  false  passport,  was  returned  to  the  United  States  in  custody  of  BNDD 
agents  and  was  arrested  on  arrival  in  Los  Angeles,  California. 

On  February  8.  1973  almost  one  year  after  receiving  the  manuscript,  the  Pass- 
port Office  returned  the  manuscript  to  SY  and  requested  an  investigation  "in 
order  to  prepare  a  foundation  for  prosecution  of  IS  USC  1542",  with  additional 
instructions  that  the  manuscript  of  Dr.  Leary  be  submitted  to  the  "Strike  Force  \ 
Orange  County,  California  for  their  information,  analysis  and  evaluation. 

On  April  3,  1973  Dr.  Leary  was  convicted  on  the  escape  charge  by  the  State  of 
California  and  is  presently  incarcerated.  There  has  been  a  premise  in  the  past,, 
that  when  a  passport  violator  is  incarcerated,  the  need  for  urgent  investigation  is 
somewhat  lessened.  The  passport  memorandum  of  September  18,  1973  was  the 
first  indication  SY  had  received  suggesting  that  the  Leary  case  had  reached  a 
critical  stage. 

Reference  is  made  to  your  May  11,  1973  memorandum  concerning  the  review 
requested  for  closing  three  categories  of  Passport  Fraud  cases  which  have  been 
pending  for  more  than  two  years.  Although  the  Passport  Office  requested  review 
of  several  categories  of  investigations.  PPT  did  not  define  a  total  number  of 
pending  cases.  The  criteria  for  closing  such  cases  was  left  to  the  discretion  of  SY. 

The  requested  procedure  involved  complete  case  studies  by  SY.  and  primarily 
involved  a  direct  study  by  Special  Agents  in  Charge  at  New  York,  Los  Angeles 
and  San  Francisco,  where  the  greatest  volume  of  work  existed.  Because  of  person- 
nel shortages,  work  demands,  and  SY  requirements,  this  study  was  necessarily 
delayed  on  several  occasions.  However.  SY  has  been  able  to  close  55  investiga- 
tions in  these  categories,  primarily  at  New  York  and  Los  Angeles,  and  has 
requested  the  Special  Agent  in  Charge  at  San  Francisco  to  give  the  matter  prior- 
ity attention,  consistent  with  constant  service  requests  from  other  segments  of 
the  Department.  SY  will  make  every  effort  to  complete  this  project  by  October  15, 
1973.  „^    .^ 

Despite  manpower  shortages  and  priority  requirements  levied  upon  SY,  it 
should  be  noted  that  SY  closed  557  passport  fraud  investigations  during  FY  72, 
342  during  FY  73.  and  71  during  the  first  two  months  of  FY  74. 

For  your  information,  the  Department  has  presented  a  FY  74  budget  amend- 
ment to  the  Congress  to  provide  SY  with  positions  to  combat  terrorism  overseas 
and  in  the  United  States.  We  are  hopeful  that  this  legislation  will  be  approved 
which  will  properly  stafE  SY  to  handle  its  additional  tasks,  and  release  its  regular 
components  to  handle  the  very  important  passport  investigations  emanating  from 
your  office. 

October  11,  1973. 
A/SY— Mr.  G.  Marvin  Gentile 
PPT — Frances  G.  Knight 

(1)  Passport  Fraud  Case  of  Timothy  Francis  Leary,  Alias  William  John  Mc- 

Neills and  Rosemary  Leary.  Alias  Sylvia  Edith  McGaffin. 

(2)  Delinquent  Passport  Fraud  Investigations 

I  refer  to  your  memorandum  of  September  24,  1973  concerning  the  subject  mat- 
ter. I  have  read  it  carefully  and.  unfortunately,  I  cannot  regard  it  as  a  construc- 
tive answer  to  my  memorandum  of  September  18,  1973.  It  reiterates  your  person- 
nel problems,  to  which  I  am  sympathetic.  It  reiterates  the  priorities  which  you 
assign  to  investigative  work  loads.  It  is  apparent  that  passport  investigations  still 
have  the  lowest  priority  in  your  current  operation.  As  I  have  stated  before.  I  am 
sympathetic  to  your  problems,  but  your  systems  of  priorities  places  the  Passport 
Office  in  an  untenable  position.  Passport  fraud  cases  must  be  investigated 
promptly  and  effectively,  and  it  is  my  responsibility  to  see  that  such  action  is 

I  note  your  attempt  to  excuse  the  lack  of  action  by  SY  in  the  Leary  case  r  si  nee 
Mr.  Duggan's  memorandum  of  February  8,  1973)  by  referring  to  the  lapse  be- 


tween  the  time  PPT  received  the  manuscript  of  "Confessions  of  a  Hope  Fiend" 
and  tlie  return  of  the  manuscript  to  SY.  Your  inference  is  that  no  action  has  been 
taken  by  the  Passport  Office  in  the  interim.  This  is  definitely  not  true.  Since  SY 
is  an  investigative  agency,  I  thinli  it  is  fair  to  state  that  this  office  was  justified 
to  assTime  that  an  investigative  agency  would  realize  the  potential  significance 
of  the  manuscript  and  make  some  effort  to  utilize,  or  at  least  to  ascertain, 
whether  it  had   any   investigative   loads  even   though   this   was  not  expressly 

Since  the  Passport  Office  received  the  manuscript,  it  has  been  reviewed  and  its 
contents  analyzed.  This  review  and  analysis  required  going  over  the  material 
many  times  and  checking  numerous  other  documents  and  files.  Extra  care  was 
taken  because  of  the  author's  obvious  efforts  to  bec'oud  facts,  circumstances,  and 
locations  in  which  activities  occurred.  The  evaluation  necessitated  the  review  of 
manv  lists  of  names  in  passports  issued  as  well  as  passport  files  in  order  to  iden- 
tify the  application  upon  which  passports  were  fraudulently  obtained  by  Dr.  and 
Mrs.  Leary.  A  careful  evaluation  was  also  necessary  in  order  to  obtain  investi- 
gative h'iuls  to  the  followed  since  SY  had  t.-iken  no  initiative  in  the  matter. 

In  addition  to  this  activity,  the  Passport  Office  initiated  communications  with 
a  number  of  foreign  service  posts  in  an  effort  to  locate  information  which  would 
be  helpful  in  the  hoped  for  investigation  as  well  as  trying  to  keep  a  lookout  on 
the  whereabouts  of  the  subject.  As  you  know,  these  efforts  culminated  in  the  suc- 
cessful return  of  the  subject  on  January  18,  1973. 

Tour  memorandum  of  September  24,  1973  indicates  that  no  action  has  been 
taken  by  your  office  in  the  matter  since  it  was  sent  to  you  on  February  8.  1973. 
A  review' of  Mr.  Duggnn's  memorandum  of  February  8,  1973  reveals  that  the 
requested  investigation  to  be  pursued  by  SY  to  obtain  the  successful  prosecution 
in  this  case  could  hnve  been  accomplished  by  experienced  investigators  in  the 
local  off.ces  involved  within  two  weeks. 

Let  me  call  your  attention  to  one  more  item  regarding  the  Leary  case.  In  your 
memorandum,  you  state  that,  on  March  1.  1972,  your  San  Francisco  field  office 
"closed  the  case  and  except  for  subjects's  connection,  with  the  'Brotherhood' 
invefifirjation,  orir  intercfit  iv  Dr.  Lrnri/  ir^'s  terniinrffrd."  There  v-'  no  indication 
in  any  of  the  memorandxnns  which  you  have  sent  to  the  Passport  Office  that 
your  Security  Office  has  ever  considered  this  case  closed.  As  a  matter  of  fact, 
"this  case,  according  to  your  records,  have  been,  and  still  is,  considered  "pending". 
A  review  of  the  file  reveals  that  we  made  a  written  request  for  investigation 
on  September  21,  1971  (5  days  prior  to  the  receipt  of  your  latest  memorandum 
dated  September  24.  1973)  to  establish  a  foundation  for  possible  criminal  prose- 
cution under  18  USC  1542.  This  investigation  ivas  never  completed. 

Another  statement  in  your  memorandum  of  September  24  which  merits  atten- 
tion is  that  "the  passport  memornndvm  of  September  18,  1973.  vas  the  first  in- 
dication SY  had  received  snggestinrj  that  the  Leary  ease  had  reached  a  critical 
stage"  simply  ignores  what  is  obvious  to  most  people  that  Dr.  Leary  is  a  notorious 
criminal.  Leary  returned  to  the  United  States  within  direct  reach  of  our 
criminal  procedures.  This,  in  and  of  itself,  should  normally  indicate  the  urgency 
of  the  situation.  You  state  there  has  been  a  premise  (of  which  I  am  not  aware) 
"that  when  a  passport  violator  is  incarcerated,  the  need  for  urgent  investiga- 
tion 7.V  somewhat  lessened'".  The  failure  to  investigate  the  ease  of  a  notorious 
individual  for  more  than  eight  months  violates,  beyond  any  comprehension,  even 
the  premise  you  created. 

In  summary,  the  record  shows  that,  during  the  year  the  Passport  Office  had 
the  manuscript,  it  performed  hundreds  of  hours  of  work  in  the  case,  something 
of  a  miracle  considering  our  chronic  shortages  of  employees.  The  record  .shows 
that,  since  the  matter  was  referred  to  you  on  February  8.  1973.  the  Office  of 
Security  has  either  done  nothing  or  failed  to  report  any  action. 

I  regret  the  necessity  of  going  over  the  chronolo^iy  in  the  Leary  case  in  re- 
buttal to  your  memorandum.  Obviously,  this  does  not  get  the  work  accomplished. 

The  statement  in  your  memorandum  of  September  24  Ihat  Mr.  Duggan's  mem- 
orandum of  May  11.  1973.  concerning  the  review  requested  for  closing  three 
categories  of  passport  frnuds  "left  the  criteria  for  closing  such  cases  to  the  dis- 
cretion of  SY"  is  not  a  fact.  These  criteria  were  repeated  in  my  memorandum 
to  you  of  September  18.  There  is  no  discretion  to  be  exercised:  the  specified  cri- 
teria irere  to  be  applied  to  the  cases  already  assigned  to  your  agents. 

The  reason  the  Legal  Division  did  not  indicate  v>'hich  cases  to  close  is  that 
PT/L  has  not  been  kept  informed  about  the  current  status  of  the  individual 
cases  because  SY/I  does  not  regularly  submit  pending  or  closing  reports.  Further, 


PT/L's  requests  for  such  reports  go  unanswered  or  generate  excuses  rather  than 
substantive  data.  Under  these  circumstances,  the  SY  agent  assigned  to  the 
case  is  the  only  person  in  a  position  to  i^now  the  current  status  and  to  apply  the 
criteria  stated  in  the  May  11  memorandum. 

It  PT/L  possessed  current  reports  on  the  status  of  the  pending  fraud  cases, 
that  office  would  have  applied  the  criteria  and  transmitted  a  list  of  cases  to 
close.  As  you  know,  some  cases  closed  by  your  agents,  citing  the  May  11  memo- 
randum, have  been  returned  to  your  office  for  investigation  because  specified  cri- 
teria were  not  met.  It  is  therefore  self-evident  that  the  cited  memorandum  did 
not  contemplate  that  special  agents  exercise  their  discretion  and  close  passport 
fraud  cases. 

Before  leaving  this  point,  let  me  stress  that  the  cited  criteria  do  not  reflect 
on  the  probability  of  fraud ;  they  reflect  only  on  the  probable  availability  of 
witnesses  and/or  evidence  because  the  investigations  are  stale. 

In  the  penultimate  pax-agraph  of  your  memorandum,  you  refer  to  the  fact  that 
SY  closed  557  passport  fraud  cases  during  FY  1972,  342  during  FY  1973.  and  71 
during  the  first  two  months  of  FY  1974.  The  decline  in  the  efforts  of  SY  in 
passport  fraud  investigations  is  evident  in  your  own  memorandum.  I  believe  it 
is  accurate  to  .state  that,  of  the  71  completed  during  the  first  two  months  of 
FY  1974,  many  of  them  fell  within  the  closing  authority  contained  in  Mr.  Dug- 
^an's  memorandum  of  May  11,  1973. 

It  is  a  matter  of  record  that  the  passport  fraud  problem  has  been  the  subject 
of  considerable  concern  by  the  Senate  Internal  Security  Subcommittee  and  the 
Passport  Office  has  committed  itself  to  expanding  the  staff  of  the  Legal  Division 
to  combat  the  situation.  This  is  a  matter  of  record  in  the  Department  budget 
hearings.  The  failure  of  SY  to  give  investigative  support  will,  if  pennitted  to 
continue,  further  detract  and  ultimately  nullify  the  effects  of  the  passport  fraud 
program.  I  would  be  lacking  in  integrity  and  frankness  if  I  did  not  bring  to  the 
attention  of  tnp  officials  of  '.he  Department  considering  the  budget  and  the  pass- 
port fraud  problem  the  results  of  the  present  position  taken  by  the  Office  of  Se- 
curity. Therefore,  as  I  indicated  in  my  memorandum  of  September  18  to  you,  I 
am  sending  you  copies  of  our  correspondence  to  Dr.  (""urtis  W.  Tarr.  I  am  at- 
taching a  copy  of  my  memorandum  to  Dr.  Tarr,  which  is  self-explanatory. 

U.S.  Government,  Memorandum. 

October  11, 1973. 
To  :  M— Dr.  Curtis  W.  Tarr,  Acting 
From  :  PPT— Frances  G.  Knight 
Subject :  Delinquent  SY  Passport  Fraud  Investigations 

We  continue  to  have  a  serious  problem  in  securing  prompt  and  effective  in- 
vestigation in  passport  fraud  cases  which  we  refer  to  the  Office  of  Security.  The 
Passport  fraud  proI)lem  becomes  increasingly  serious  with  the  passage  of  time. 
You  are.  no  doubt,  aware  of  the  concern  and  interest  in  passport  frauds  liy  the 
Senate  Internal  Security  Subcommittee  and  their  recent  call  to  have  me  testify 
on  the  subject  on  October  3, 1973. 

You  will  recall  that,  on  August  9,  1973,  at  the  Department's  Budget  Hearing,  we 
were  requested  to  submit  further  data  on  the  fraud  problem  so  that  it  could  be 
determined  what  effect  it  would  have  ou  the  work  load  of  the  Office  of  Security. 
On  August  21,  1973,  this  additional  information  was  furnished  to  Miss  Barbara 
Watson,  SCA,  and  I  hope  that  it  was,  in  turn,  forwarded  to  the  proper  authori- 
ties :  however,  we  have  had  no  indication  of  what  action  was  taken  on  the  mate- 
rial we  provided. 

Because  of  the  long  delays  and  backlog  of  cases,  I  sent  a  memorandum  to  Mr. 
Marvin  Gentile,  SY,  on  September  18,  1973  (copy  attached)  requesting  a  state- 
ment from  him  advising  this  office  what  steps  he  intended  to  take  to  insure  prompt 
and  effective  investigations  of  passport  fraud  cases.  In  his  reply  to  me.  Mr. 
Gentile  failed  to  present  any  positive  program  showing  that  he  would  take  action 
to  implement  prompt  and  effective  passport  fraud  investigations.  (Copy  at- 

I  have  indicated  to  Mr.  Gentile  that  the  Passport  Office  has  a  duty  and  respon- 
silulity  to  present  to  Congress  and  to  0MB,  at  their  request,  the  facts  and  the 
seriousness  of  the  apparent  lack  of  action  within  the  Department  of  State.  Ab- 
sent immediate  action  to  overcome  the  present  dormant  position  of  the  priorities 
given  to  passport  fraud  investigations  in  SY,  I  must  request  that  the  investiga- 
tive responsibility  be  transferred,  along  with  personnel,  to  some  other  area  of 


governmeut.  It  has  been  suggested  that  the  Passport  Office  assume  these  duties 
but  the  uncooperative  and  indifferent  attitude  of  the  Bureau  of  Security  and 
Consular  Affairs  is  not  conducive  to  support  or  promote  action  on  any  matter 
dealing  with  national  security. 

The  Senate  Internal  Security  Subcommittee  has  made  some  very  pertinent 
inquiries  into  the  passport  fraud  situation ;  the  lack  of  support  for  our  program ; 
the  obvious  lack  of  interest  in  and  action  on  our  previous  warnings ;  the  mount- 
ing incidence  of  fraud ;  and  the  inordinate  and  inexplicable  delays  in  the  investi- 
gation process. 

I  would,  indeed,  appreciate  your  thoughts  on  this  very  serious  matter  as  soon 
as  possible.  I  know  how  very  busy  you  are.  I  know  that  one  crisis  has  followed 
another  in  rapid  succession,  but  I  have  been  waiting  for  years  to  get  an  atten- 
tive and  sympathetic  ear  within  the  Department  and  some  support  for  the  Pass- 
port Office  efforts  in  this  area,  only  to  receive  the  yearly  meat-axe  approach  in 
personnel  and  budget  cuts,  as  well  as  the  general  sabotage  which  is  the  by-product 
of  SCA's  continual  harassment  of  the  Passport  Office  staff. 

I  am  attaching  for  your  information  copies  of  the  interchange  of  communica- 
tions with  the  Office  of  Security. 

Mr.  SouKwiNE.  Off  the  record. 

[Discussion  off  the  record.] 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Now,  I  have  just  two  more  things. 

Mr.  Chairman,  I  spoke  earlier  of  the  newspaper  reports  with  re- 
spect to  the  awarding  of  the  research  contract  in  connection  with  the 
new  and  secure  passport.  I  have  two  of  these  reproductions  of  news- 
paper clippings  here.  I  would  like  to  ask  that  they  be  inserted  in  the 
record  at  the  appropriate  place. 

The  Chairmax.  So  ordered. 

Mr.  Soitrwint:.  Now,  Miss  Knight,  here  is  the  story  from  the  Phila- 
delphia Bulletin  about  Mr.  Edward  Neilan's  interview  with  Miss  Bar- 
bara Watson.  He  starts  out  by  saying : 

The  passport  of  the  future  could  look  more  like  a  credit  card  than  the  present 
version  of  the  standard  passport  which  has  pages  for  stamping  of  entry  and  exit 
visas.  "Studies  are  underway  to  create  a  streamlined  passport",  said  Miss  Bar- 
bara M.  Watson.  Administrator  to  the  Bureau  of  Security  and  Consular  Affairs 
which  directs  visa  and  passport  matters  for  all  American  citizens.  Miss  Watson, 
known  among  her  colleagues  in  Washington  as  "the  passport  lady"  suggests  that 
one  version  of  the  passport  of  the  future  might  be  a  plastic  IBM  type  card  with 
certain  data  pre-punched  In  coding. 

That  is  archaic,  Miss  Knight.  They  were  prepunching  and  coding 
data  when  I  came  to  Washington  40  years  ago.  Computers  were  not 
even  invented  yet.  I  find  this  thing  preposterous. 

[The  article  referred  to  follows :] 

[From  the  Philadelphia  Bulletin,  Sept.  23,  1973] 

Meet  the  Passport  Lady  :  She  Wobeies  About  You 

(By  Edward  Neilan) 

Washington. — The  passport  of  the  future  could  look  more  like  a  credit  card 
than  the  present  version  of  the  standard  passport  which  has  pages  for  stamping 
of  entry  and  exit  visas. 

"Studies  are  under  way  to  create  a  streamlined  passport,"  said  Miss  Barbara 
M.  Watson,  administrator  of  the  Bureau  of  Security  and  Consular  Affairs,  which 
directs  visa  and  passport  matters  for  all  American  citizens. 

Miss  Watson,  knoviTi  among  her  colleagues  in  Washington  as  "Tlie  Passport 
Lady,"  suggests  that  one  version  of  the  passport  of  the  future  might  be  a  plastic 
IBM-tyi)e  card  with  certain  data  prepunched  and  coded. 

When  a  person  arrived  at  a  foreign  border  he  would  produce  his  "computer- 
ized" data  card  and  the  border  officials  would  run  it  through  a  machine.  Anyone 
whose  card  wasn't  properly  punched  would  be  detained  ior  questiuning. 


''Can  you  imagine  how  many  man-hours  of  hiborious  hand-stamping  and 
scribbling  in  passports  this  would  save?"  asked  Miss  Watson. 

With  more  Americans  traveling  around  this  summer  than  ever  before,  the 
State  Department's  worldwide  network  of  consular  otfice.s  is  swamped  with  appli- 
cations, requests,  complaints  and  visitors  who  "just  dropped  by  to  say  'hello'  ". 

Miss  Watson  presides  over  the  some  250  Amei-ican  consular  offices  in  127 
countries.  The  offices  are  staffed  by  about  2,000  local  and  American  workers. 

The  number  of  Americans  going  overseas  this  year  will  be  well  over  eight 

That  compares  to  fewer  than  five  million  in  1968. 

Adding  to  the  consular  duties  of  the  State  Department  is  the  fact  that  about  a 
million  and  a  half  Americans  now  reside  abroad— although  devaluation  of  the 
dollar  has  sent  thousands  scurrying  back  "home". 

Miss  Watson  said  that  consular  services  rendered  have  more  than  doubled 
in  the  last  decade,  going  from  450,000  in  1D62  to  929,068  in  1972. 

Some  2.6  million  passports  v»'ere  issued  last  year  and  the  demand  is  seen  as 
growing  steadily  in  coming  years.  One  important  step  toward  facilitating  issu- 
ance of  new  passports  was  the  recent  decision  to  use  the  U.S.  Post  Offices  as 
receiving  points  for  passport  applications.  This  has  provided  more  than  700 
points  across  the  country  where  citizens  may  apply. 

Miss  Watson  is  the  daughter  of  a  one-time  judge  of  the  New  York  Muuicipal 

An  attorney,  she  joined  the  State  Department  in  July,  1960,  as  special  assistant 
to  the  deputy  undersecretary  for  administration. 

In  1968  she  was  sworn  in  as  administrator  of  the  passport  and  consular  office, 
with  the  rank  of  assistant  secretary  of  state.  That  made  her  the  first  black  person 
ever  to  hold  a  position  at  that  level  in  the  Department  of  State. 

Miss  Watson,  who  said  her  hobby  is  "people."  noted  that  with  so  many  more 
Americans  traveling  to  foreign  countries ;  "it  is  not  surprising  that  more  and 
more  are  getting  into  trouble  of  one  sort  or  another  abroad." 

She  said  "in  many  cases  this  is  due  to  nothing  more  than  a  lack  of  knowledge 
of  local  customs,  mores  and  languages." 

One  of  her  department's  most  serious  problems,  she  said,  is  assisting  Americans 
who  are  arrested  in  foreign  lands. 

"It  comes  as  a  shock  to  many  Americans  who  feel  that  all  they  have  to  do — 
when  arrested  in  a  foreign  country — is  to  say  they  are  Americans  and  they  will 
be  let  free,  or,  at  worst,  will  be  tried  under  American  law.  Of  course,  this  is  not 
the  case  at  all. 

"It  is  tragic,"  said  Miss  Watson,  "but  the  number  of  young  Americans  'busted' 
in  drug  raids  overseas  has  become  very  serious.  The  number  is  dipping  slightly 
now  but  there  are  still  1,084  young  Americans  in  jail  in  foreign  countries  on  drug 
charges.  Three  of  every  four  are  under  25  years  of  age." 

Miss  Watson  advised  Americans  who  live  abroad  and  plan  to  purchase  property 
in  foreign  countries  to  check  with  their  local  American  consular  offices.  "There 
are  legal  intricacies  that  the  unwary  buyer  must  know  about  or  he  might  some- 
day lose  the  property  because  of  clauses  in  the  fine  print." 

Visits  by  foreigners  to  the  United  States  have  increased  by  200  percent  in  the 
last  10  years,  she  noted. 

Nonimmigrant  visas  issued  rose  from  775.027  in  1962  to  2.290.576  last  year. 
Immigrant  visas  issued  increased  from  273,190  in  1962  to  293,966  in  1972. 

Miss  Watson  said  that  current  immigration  laws  may  be  changed  to  give  per- 
sons born  in  the  Western  Plemisphere  a  better  change  to  immigrate  to  the  United 
States  if  they  can  qualify  under  certain  "skills"  criteria. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  You  say  you  had  a  chance  to  read  it,  Now,  will  you 
comment  on  it?  Is  there  a  vestige  of  truth  in  it?  "Wliat  is  the  situation? 

Miss  Knight.  Mr.  Chairman,  a  marked  copy  of  the  article  was 
mailed  to  me  from  a  Philadelphia  source  and  I  received  it  yesterday. 
INIy  only  comment  is  that  I  was  appalled  by  the  statements  reported 
regarding  passports  which  are  totally  inaccurate,  incorrect,  and  irre- 
sponsible. I  can  only  regard  these  efforts  to  mislead  the  press  and  the 
public  as  a  deliberate  and  unconscionable  attempt  to  sabotage  the 
tremendous  effort  which  has  already  been  invested  in  our  long  search 
for  an  effective,  efficient,  secure,  and  machine-readable  passport,  ac- 

23-538—73 6 


ceptable  to  other  countries  which  require  nov\-  and  in  the  foreseeable 
future  visas  for  U.S.  citizens.  Currently  there  are  147  countries  that 
require  visas  on  U.S.  passports.  In  my  opinion  the  statement  made  by 
the  official  quoted  in  the  story,  regarding  a  plastic  card  passport,  is  so 
stupid,  in  the  light  of  our  research  and  detailed  analysis  that  any  per- 
son with  a  minimal  Imowledge  of  world  travel  requirements  and  a 
grade-school  understanding  of  national  security  would  promptly  dis- 
miss it  as  a  hoax  or  figure  that  it  was  a  misprint. 

jSIr.  SouRWiNE.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  will  ask  that  the  full  text  of  the 
newspaper  story  in  question  go  into  the  record  at  the  point  where  I 
asked  Miss  Knight  about  it  so  that  her  comment  thereafter  may  follow 

I  have  no  more  questions.  Miss  I^iight.  Thank  you  very  much  for 
coming  up  here  and  waiting  so  patiently  and  ansAvering  our  questions 
so  fully. 

The  Chairman.  Miss  Knight,  we  are  always  glad  to  have  you  here 
and  we  know  you  for  an  earnest  and  dedicated  and  mighty  hard- 
working public  servant  and  we  sure  do  thank  you. 

Miss  Knight.  Thank  you.  sir. 

[Whereupon,  at  3 :55  o'clock,  the  hearing  was  concluded.] 


List  of  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love  Indictees 


1.  Druce,  Charles,  England.  _  .         „       , 

2.  Friedman,   Lester,    Dr.,    DOB   9/14/28.    361S   Concord   Drive,   Beacliwood, 

3    Hitchcock,  William  Mellon,  DOB  9/6/30.  Box  503,  Millbrook.  N.T. 

4.  Leary,    Timothy    Frances,    DOB   10/22/20,    in   custody,    CaUforma    State 

5.  Randall,  Michael  Boyd,  DOB  8/27/43,  fugitive. 

6.  Scully,  Robert  Timothy,  DOB  8/27/44,  San  Francisco,  Calif. 

7.  Stark,  Ronald  Hadley.  DOB  4/9/38.  fugitive. 

8.  Mantell,  David  Leigh,  DOB  4/25/40,  fugitive. 

9.  Sand,  Nicholas,  DOB  5/10/41,  in  custody. 

1.  Ackerly,  Robert  Dale.  DOB  1/23/44.  in  custody,  Federal  prison. 

2.  Andrist,  Robert  Lee,  DOB  11/3/45,  fugitive. 

3.  Ashbrook,  Travis  Grant,  DOB  1/9/45,  fugitive. 

4.  Bevan,  Rick  C,  DOB  11/20/48,  fugitive. 

5.  Crittenden,  James  Leroy,  DOB  8/14/42,  Mariposa  County,  Calif. 

6.  Dmry,  Donald  Karl,  DOB  3/18/37,  in  custody. 

7.  Gale,  John  Charles.  DOB  8/4/47.  Las  Vegas,  Nev. 

8.  Johnson,  Gordon  Fred,  DOB  3/25/45,  in  custody.  California  State  Prison. 

9.  Lange,  Edveard  Jeffrey,  DOB  11/26/47,  Orange  County,  Calif. 

10.  Scott,  Charles  Frederick,  DOB  12/28/41,  fugitive. 

11.  Tokhi,  Hayatullah,  DOB  1939,  fugitive,  Afghanistan. 

12.  Sexton,  Gordon  Albert,  DOB  1/29/46.  fugitive. 

13.  Smith,  Brenice  Lee,  DOB  4/6/45,  fugitive. 

14.  Tiernev,  Robert  Edward.  DOB  4/22/47,  in  custody,  Panama. 

15.  Tokhi,  Amanullah  Salem,  DOB  3/15/33,  fugitive,  Afghanistan. 

16.  Bevan,  Ronald,  DOB  9/19/46.  f  ugtitive. 

17.  Caserta,  Daniel  Phillip,  DOB  8/9/47,  fugitive. 

18.  German,  Lyle  Paul,  DOB  3/7/39,  fugitive. 

19.  Hall,  David  Alan,  DOB  10/6/42,  fugitive. 

20.  May,  Edward  Joseph,  DOB  2/1/33.  fugitive,  San  Francisco. 

21.  Padilla,  Gerald  James,  DOB  8/13/47.  fugitive. 

22.  Stanton,  Mark  Patrick,  DOB  9/20/46,  fugitive. 


1.  Allen,  Linda  Pohl,  DOB  3/15/47,  Laguna  Beach,  Calif. 

2.  Arthur,  David  Alan,  DOB  1/8/43,  fugitive. 

3.  Becker,  Dale  Andrew,  DOB  12/28/42.  fugitive,  Australia. 

4.  Bidwell,  Thomas  Blake,  DOB  2/18/45,  San  Diego,  Calif. 

5.  Clav,  James  Henry,  DOB  11/28/45,  in  custody,  California  State  Prison. 

6.  Crawford.  Ronald  Ray,  DOB  4/15/43,  Hawaii. 

7.  Daw,  John  Robert,  DOB  10/10/43,  fugitive. 

8.  Delaney,  Calvin  Larry,  DOB  10/31/42,  Hawaii. 

9.  Harrigan,  Russell  Joseph,  DOB  8/19/40,  fugitive. 

10.  Harrington,  John  Joseph,  Jr.,  DOB  9/18/42,  fugitive. 

11.  Lynd,  Glenn  Craig,  DOB  3/23/42. 

12.  McAdams,  Brian  Kendall,  DOB  4/9/46. 

13.  McAdams.  Yonica  Menne,  DOB  4/9/47. 

14.  Otto,  Jimmy  Gregg,  DOB  2/14/45,  Laguna  Beach,  Calif. 



15.  Palma,  Franklin,  DOB  1/18/46. 

16.  Polil,  Gerald,  DOB  6/31/48,  fugitive. 

17.  Pooley,  Michael  Lee,  DOB  2/22/49. 

18.  Pratt,  Jill  Barnett,  D,OB  3/16/45,  fugitive 

Jo  l^fS^^lF'-'V'^  ^l''''^''  ^9.^  S/10/4S,  in  custody,  California  State  Prison. 

20.  Pratt,  Stanford  Leon,  DOB  8/6/45,  fugitive 

21.  Bowyer,  Chester  Allen,  DOB  8/3/39,  in  custody,  Federal  prison 

[From  Good  Times,  Jan.  8,  1971] 
Getting  High  With  Jennifer 

^^iStndTf-iuI  Sr?™i  ""^^n?^^^  returned  to  the  United  States  after  visiting 
political  exiles  Eldridge  Cleaver  and  Timothy  Leary  in  Algeria,  and  accom- 
panying Leary  on  an  attempted  meeting  with  Al  Fatah  in  Lebanon.  Last  week 
she  visited  Good  Times  and  told  us  : ) 

In  October  I  got  the  opportunity  to  go  to  Algeria  with  five  other  people.  Tim- 
othy had  been  out  about  three  weeks  when  I  arrived.  It's  really  a  trip  to  get 
on  an  airp  ane  and  get  off  a  day  later  in  Africa  and  there's  Timothy  Leary  and 
Hi?"/-'r,  ^^^^T^^  to  Sveet  you,  two  men  I'd  never  met,  but  really  important, 
beautiful  people.  The  first  week  I  spent  just  getting  to  know  the  people  there 
the  Panthers  and  Rosemary  and  Timothy,  building  up  a  kind  of  trust,  getting 
close  to  people  so  that  we  could  have  a  friendship 

The  Panthers  in  Algiers  .  .  .  Eldridge  and  Kathleen,  two  Panthers  from  the 
m^'^Ty*^  .V,  ■^'  '^^^^  "^^  t^^^™  underground  in  this  country  for  a  year  and  a  half 
Ihe  I  anthers  have  been  granted  the  status  of  a  national  liberation  front  and 
been  given  an  embassy  and  they've  established  diplomatic  relations  with  people 
like  the  North  Vietnamese  and  the  North  Koreans.  When  you're  there  the 
first  feeling  you  get  is  that  you're  a  diplomat. 

Algiers  is  a  good  place  to  be  right  now.  One  reason  for  this  is  the  easy  access 
ot  this  country.  You  can  fly  right  there.  Another  thing  is  that  every  national 
liberation  front  m  the  world  has  a  center  there,  which  I  don't  think  happens  in 
any  other  city.  The  Panthers  have  the  opportunity  to  set  up  what  they  call  a 
peoples  embassy  and  they  really  see  themselves  as  an  international  part  of 
this  movement,  setting  up  relations  for  all  of  us.  We  found  that  out  on  the  trip 
to  the  Middle  East  because  of  a  whole  series  of  communcations.  We  were  in 
Cairo  and  all  the  lines  between  Cairo  and  Algiers  were  down.  It  took  four  days 
to  send  a  wire.  We  found  out  that  Eldridge  had  the  Chinese,  Koreans  and  the 
North  \  letnamese  looking  for  us.  In  fact  at  one  point  the  Koreans  wired  K^m 
II  Sung  and  he  sent  a  wire  to  Cairo  saying  that  they  should  find  us  because  we 
were  their  comrades.  And  that  position  is  because  of  the  work  Eldridge  has  done 
in  establishing  diplomatic  relations  with  other  countries.  At  the  same  time,  it's 
very  contradictory  in  Algiers  now  because  the  government  is  beginning  to  nego- 
tiate diplomatic  relations  with  the  U.S.  and  if  that  does  happen  it's  certainly 
going  to  have  an  effect  as  far  as  that  being  a  sanctuary. 

I  think  the  impression  that  I've  had  of  Eldridge  is  that  he's  one  of  the  warm- 
est, most  open  revolutionaries  that  I've  met,  very  direct,  verv  brilliant.  He  has 
the  ability  to  perceive  relations.  He  really  has  an  understanding  of  youth  culture, 
understands  that  it's  a  revolutionary  force  in  this  country.  One  of  the  biggest 
problems  for  the  Panthers  in  Algiers  is  that  they're  verv  isolated  from  the  move- 
ment here,  very  cut  off.  People  in  this  country  think  they're  on  the  moon  or  some- 
thing and  think  that  they  can't  call  them  or  write  them.  Because  of  that  people 
J^ri  }^^  *^^^  ^^^^  ^^  ^^"*^  ^^^^  papers  re.gularly,  send  them  letters  and  tapes. 
.^  „•  doesn't  the  U.S.  government  hold  back  a  lot  of  the  stuff  that's  sent  to 

Sure,  a  lot  of  it  gets  ripped  off.  But  they  should  have  a  paper  every  week  be- 
cause It  s  tlieir  only  way  of  really  being  a  part  of  this  movement  ...  for  us  to 
relate  to  them. 

One  of  the  things  that  struck  me  over  and  over  was  how  hard  it  is  to  be  in 
exile.  One  of  the  things  Eldridge  would  say  is  how  much  he  wanted  to  be 
back  because  fighting  in  one's  own  country  is  really  important  and  necessary  to 
a  revolutionary.  Wlien  we  were  there  we  had  a  birthday  party  for  Tim  and  Bobby 
beale.  A\  e  had  a  really  nice  celebration  for  Tim's  birthday  and  freedom  and  for 
fighting  for  Bobby's  freedom. 


GT :  What  about  reports  that  the  Algerian  government  is  hostile  to  the  U.S. 
political  refugees?  ^.      ^,    ,        ...  ....  „, 

It's  not  true  at  all.  There  was  never  a  question  about  Timothy  s  getting  political 
asvlum  •  it  was  granted  as  soon  as  he  was  there.  The  Panthers  wouldn't  have  been 
given  an  embassy  and  invited  to  all  these  meetings  and  affairs  unless  they  were 
in  a  very  good  position  there.  ij  j*.    /^ 

I  think  the  whole  image  was  perpetrated  to  make  it  seem  like  we  couldn  t  go 
anywhere.  The  Algerian  government  sponsored  a  trip  for  four  of  us  to  go  to  the 
Middle  East  to  meet  with  the  Palestinian  guerrillas.  Field  Marshall  D.  C.  and 
Alartv  Kenner,  who's  chairman  of  the  Panther  Defense  Fund,  and  Timothy  and 
mvseif  went  to  the  Middle  East.  What  happened  was  that  when  we  arrived  m 
Beirut  we  were  supposed  to  be  met  by  members  of  Al  Fateh,  who  were  then  going 
to  take  us  into  Damascus  or  Aman,  depending  on  how  heavy  the  fighting  was  in 

Aman  that  week.  ^         .  ^  ^,  .        •   <.     „ 

When  we  arrived  in  Beirut  there  was  no  one  there  to  meet  us.  At  this  point  we 
weren't  too  upset  because  we  didn't  know  anything  about  Beirut  at  the  time,  so 
we  thought  we'd  just  go  to  a  hotel  for  the  night  and  wake  up  and  make  contact 
<-he  next  day  and  that  evervthing  would  be  fine.  So  we  went  off  and  the  Lebanese 
government  put  us  up  in  this  hotel  and  we  went  to  sleep  thinking  everything 
would  be  fine  the  next  day.  Well,  we  didn't  know  a  couple  of  things.  One  was  that 
■\  DPI  reporter  had  identified  Timothy  on  the  plane  from  Cairo  to  Beirut  and  put 
it  out  over  the  wire  the  first  night  that  we  were  there  in  the  city.  The  second 
thing  was  that  the  hotel  that  the  Lebanese  government  had  recommended  turned 
out  to  be  the  headquarters  for  Western  press  in  Beirut.  So  after  two  days  we 
found  out  that  CBS  had  the  room  next  door,  Newsweek  and  everyone  was  m  this 
hote^  So  we  get  up  the  next  morning  thinking  that  we'd  just  have  breakfast  ana 
so  out  and  meet  the  people  from  Al  Fateh.  So  we  stepped  out  on  this  little  balcony 
on  the  hotel  room  and  find  reporters  on  top  of  cars  with  telescopic  lenses.  Every 
time  I  opened  the  door,  men  would  grab  me  and  try  to  drag  me  into  the  hall  to 
make  a  statement.  .     .,    .     ,  i. 

This  incredible  situation  developed  that  the  Western  press  m  their  determina- 
tioi-  to  "et  a  story  on  Tim  Learv  completely  endangered  our  safety  and  caused 
such  a  stir  that  Al  Fateh  in  Beirut,  who  hadn't  received  the  proper  communica- 
tions from  Algiers,  didn't  know  what  was  happening  and  the  CIA  was  beginning 
to  try  and  move  on  us.  There's  no  extradition  treaty  in  Lebanon  so  the  Lebanese 
<^ovemment  couldn't  arrest  us,  but  they  were  being  put  in  a  position  of  going  to 
have  to  ask  us  to  leave.  It  was  a  very  complicated  situation,  mainly  because 
Beirut  is  like  a  completely  open  city  where  anything  goes.  For  Timothy  and  D.  C. 
it  was  like  being  in  O'Hare  Airport  ...  it  was  that  serious. 

W^hat  finally  happened  on  the  Middle  East  trip  is  that  the  press  situation  m 
Beirut  made  it  necessary  to  return  to  Algiers.  At  one  point  we  had  a  car  that  was 
going  to  take  us  to  Damascus,  but  without  the  proper  contacts  with  the  gnernlla 
forces  it  would  have  been  very  dangerous  to  go  further  in.  So  we  decided  to  return 
to  Algeria  until  that  whole  problem  straightened  up.  We  went  back  through 
Cairo  and  Eiryptian  authorities  checked  us  out  and  were  very  warm  to  us.  While 
we  were  in  Cairo  we  went  to  the  Algerian  embassy  and  the  ambassador  came  in 
and  was  verv  happy  to  see  us  and  arranged  for  our  flight  back. 

To  fly  from  Cairo  to  Algiers  is  really  complicated.  You  have  to  go  through 
Tunis  and  Tripoli.  Tunis  is  another  open  city  so  we  couldn't  go  through  customs 
and  get  off  the  plane,  especially  at  this  point  because  everyone  in  the  world  knew 
where  we  were  every  minute.  So  they  arranged  for  our  flight  back  so  that  we 
would  never  have  to  get  off  the  plane  and  we  were  with  Algerians  the  whole 

way  back.  „     ,  ,  j.  n    j  ^    „ 

While  we  were  in  Cairo  we  met  with  the  Middle  East  press  and  talked  to  a 
lot  of  people  there.  The  three  things  they  know  about  were  the  Black  Panther 
Party,  the  bombings  in  this  country  and  Muhammed  Ali.  Mostly  they  wanted  to 
to  Ik  about  him  because  he's  a  big  hero  to  them.  It  was  really  sad  that  we  conldn]t 
meet  with  the  Palestinians  because  the  people  in  the  Middle  East  are  such  beauti- 
ful people.  _    ,  .   ,  ^    J  ,  xi-!i.  J 

I  found  out  a  lot  about  what  the  pig  press  is  like.  We  tried  to  take  an  attitude 
that  said,  like  our  security,  our  safety  is  the  first  thing  and  as  soon  as  we  re 
in  a  safe  place,  we'll  talk  to  the  press,  but  our  first  concern  is  to  get  out  («f  here 
alive  And  they,  for  very  definite  reasons  could  only  print  the  most  outrageous 
kinds  of  things,  like  headlines  saying  "The  High  Priest  of  Hashish"  is  in  town. 
It's  really  amazing,  people  will  ask  me  questions  like,  "How  was  Tim  Leary 
received  in  places  in  Algeria  and  the  Middle  East?"  He's  received  very  well  and 
it's  because  of  this  human  consciousness  that  he  has  about  explaining  about 


drugs.  Reporters  would  say,  Dr.  Leary,  could  you  tell  us  what  LSD  is?  and 
he'd  explain  what  the  whole  movement  has  been  about  in  this  country,  explaining 
that  dope  is  a  very  important  part  of  our  culture  and  that  it's  very  revolutionary, 
and  what  it's  meant  in  this  country  in  the  last  ten  years.  You  know,  dropping  out 
of  this  society's  values,  turning  on,  the  whole  political  movement  that's  developed 
from  that.  He'll  explain  that  and  at  the  same  time  say,  but  I  vinderstand  that  in 
other  cultures,  in  different  societies,  and  even  in  the  same  culture  at  a  different 
time,  dope  can  play  a  very  different  role — like  it's  certainly  different  in  the 
ghetto  in  this  country  than  in  the  youth  culture. 

In  Algeria  and  in  the  Middle  East  dope  has  been  used  as  a  very  oppressive 
thing  and  tlie  revolutionaries  have  all  had  to  fight  against  it,  but  the  attitude 
that  Timothy  has  and  we  all  had  was  to  be  very  open  and  understanding,  and  ask- 
ing about  the  history  of  it  in  their  own  revolutions  meant  that  he  was  received 
very  well.  He  was  respected  and  he  really  wanted  to  learn  about  the  revolution 
in  other  places,  so  there  was  never  any  problem  to  our  meeting  with  revolutionary 
groups  about  Timothy  Leary's  position  in  the  movement. 

AVe  mostly  were  going  to  meet  with  Al  Fateh.  It's  not  a  revolutionary  organi- 
zation .  .  .  it's  more  like  a  loosely  knit  nationalist  organization.  They  are  the  ones 
who  have  relations  with  the  Algerian  government.  There  are  po.sters  for  Al 
Fateh  all  over  the  Cairo  airport  and  the  rest  of  the  city.  The  thing  about  the 
people,  like  in  Cairo,  is  that  they  really  look  to  the  movement,  to  the  black 
struggle,  to  the  youth  movement.  They  really  see  a  revolution  in  this  country  and 
it's  totally  connected  with  their  own  freedom.  They  rt>ally  look  to  this  country 
for  leadership.  There's  an  incredible  sense  that  this  is  the  real  heart. 

I  want  to  say  that  my  sister,  Bernadine,  was  never  in  Algiers.  It's  really  an 
important  thing  to  understand  because  when  I  got  back  and  found  out  the  whole 
story  that  had  developed  about  her  being  there,  I  found  that  people  were  really 
depressed  and  shaken  about  it.  It  had  the  effect  of  people  saying  that  it  really 
wasn't  like  the  picture  we  get  of  how  it  is  to  be  underground.  Like  maybe  it 
wasn't  true  and  maybe  they  couldn't  make  it.  It  is  a  defeating  kind  of  feeling 
that  people  had  about  it.  It's  important  for  people  to  understand  that  she  is  here. 

Let's  talk  about  Timothy. 

People  ask  all  the  time  why  did  he  change  and  how  he  has  changed  and  what 
he's  like  now.  I  think  there  are  a  couple  of  things  that  caused  his  development 
to  wanting  to  become  a  revolutionary.  One  is  that  he  saw  in  the  whole  youth 
movement  that  developed  around  him — the  dropping  acid  and  dropping  out— 
that  you  find  internal  freedom  ...  he  saw  that  the  reople  who  took  only  that 
road  ended  up  with  very  self-indulgent  totally  degenerate  lives,  totally  ignoring 
that  there's  an  imperialist  state  that's  oppressing  people  all  aroimd  the  world 
That  we  need  two  '.-inds  of  revolutions  together  .  .  .  they're  not  separate  .  .  . 
they're  all  about  being  a  revolutionary.  Which  is  like  fighting  to  build  new 
men  and  v.'omen,  tiying  to  build  new  structures,  new  ways  of  living.  That's  what 
we're  really  about  .  .  .  that  we're  trying  to  live  it  as  we're  also  fighting  to  build 
new  men  and  women,  trying  to  build  new  structures,  new  ways  of  living.  That's 
what  we're  really  about  .  .  .  that  we're  trying  to  live  it  as  we're  also  fighting  a 
revolution.  And  you  can't  have  one  without  the  other. 

Timothy  said  in  this  tape  I  brought  back  that  a  political  revolutionary  who 
isn't  turned  on  is  a  political  robot,  and  the  system  which  he  seeks  to  build  is  no 
better  than  the  one  he's  destroying.  So  he  really  began  to  see  that  you  just  can't 
go  off  and  find  a  nirvana  when  you  can  walk  into  Harlem  or  Watts  and  be  hit 
with  the  genocidal  war  against  blacks  nnd  people  all  over  the  world  being  op- 
pressed. You  can't  just  go  off  and  think  that  you  can  find  a  new  kind  of  internal 

Going  to  jail  and  being  in  prison  ...  I  gness  it  was  nine  or  ten  months  .  .  . 
certainly  changed  him.  He  says  that  he  really  began  planning  his  escape  from 
the  moment  he  entered  prison.  He  was  very  careful  about  not  having  press 
conferences,  about  not  being  a  public  figure,  he  convinced  Reagan  and  all  the  state 
authorities  that  he  was  a  very  h.irmless  man  who  should  be  put  in  minimum 
security.  In  fact  the  day  before  he  escaped,  he  cleaned  out  his  locker  and  taped 
inside  the  door  a  newspapf^  clipi)!ng  that  said  that  Gov.  Rengan  says  Timothy 
Leary  was  a  completely  liarmless  man  who  cnnld  be  ))ut  i'l  rainiiinim  s(-'.urity. 
He  just  under  lined  it  in  rc-d  and  t.'iped  it  to  the  inside  of  his  locker,  knowing 
that  they  would  find  it  a  day  later  when  he  was  free.  He  worked  out  a  lot  when 
he  was  in  prison  and  he's  very  strong. 

The  day  of  his  escape  two  pigs  came  to  the  prison  ...  I  don't  know  if  they  were 
FBI  or  what.  But  they  were  going  to  take  him  to  New  York  where  he  was  going  to 
be  tried  on  some  other  charges  and  these  pigs  knew  him  because  they  had  been 


chasing  liiin  and  buf^ting  him  for  years.  So  they  called  him  into  the  warden's 
office  and  said,  "Timothy,  we  have  to  take  you  back  to  New  York.  We  can  either 
leave  today  and  drive  or  wait  "til  Monday  and  fiy  back."  So  he  said,  "Why  don't 
you  take  tiie  weekend  off  and  we'll  fly  in  on  Monday.  That's  fine  with  me."  He 
had  this  great  image  that  they'd  go  off  and  get  drunk  for  the  weekend  and  wake 
on  Monday  and  find  these  headlines  that  Timothy  Leary  had  escaped. 

In  his  actual  escape  he  found  that  he  couldn't  go  out  of  the  prison  as  he  had 
actually  planned.  He  in  fact  had  to  climb  over  a  part  of  the  wall  that  was  under 
floodlights  with  guards  walking  back  and  forth.  He  got  halfway  up  this  wail  and 
his  hands  were  all  cut  from  the  wire  ...  he  was  just  hanging  there,  not  knowing 
if  he  could  make  it.  He  said  that  the  thought  he  had  was  if  they  shoot  me  I  want 
to  fall  over  the  wall  to  let  people  know  I  was  trying  to  be  free.  He  also  carried 
out  a  statement  he  had  written  in  prison  that  was  later  released.  It  shows  he  was 
in  a  good  place  before  he  escaped. 

The  week  that  he  spent  with  the  Weather  underground  [after  his  escape]  was 
a  really  incredible  experience  for  him.  The  first  night  he  was  takeu  to  a  house 
in  the  city  and  found  everything  he  could  have  wanted  while  he  was  in  prison. 
He  had  a  bubble  bath  and  there  w;ts  a  refrigerator  full  of  food,  lots  of  dope.  And 
the  next  day  he  was  out  on  the  streets  walking  around.  He  said  he  was  terrified 
of  this  image  that  you're  going  to  be  taken  to  some  basement  or  to  some  mountain 
top,  but  that  we're  certainly  not  going  to  be  around  people.  But  he  was  in  dis- 
guise and  had  a  new  i.d. 

He  said  he  was  with  Weather  brothers  and  sisters  who  are  so  confident,  who 
are  part  of  the  youth  culture  in  this  country  and  so  they  can  move  around  any- 
where. They're  us.  And  because  they  are,  they  can  move  in  so  many  places.  They 
can  go  wherever  we  go.  And  they've  developed  a  real  strength  and  confidence 
which  he  couldn't  help  but  feel.  So  he  learned  this  whole  new  way  of  moving. 

They  got  in  a  car  the  first  day  and  were  driving  down  the  street  when  thi^ 
carload  of  freaks  drove  by,  started  honking  the  horn  and  waving,  causing  all 
this  commotion  so  Tim  panicked  that  someone  had  recognized  him,  but  he  kind  of 
smiled  and  waved  back  and  then  a  Weather  sister  sitting  next  to  him  said.  "That 
was  Mark  Rudd  who  just  waved  to  you.  Another  thing  Tim  did  during  that  week 
was  the  day  Jimi  Hendrix  died  ...  he  was  a  very  good  friend  of  Timothy's  .  .  . 
he  and  Rosemary  and  Bernadine  and  Jeff  Jones  got  stoned  and  went  to  see 
"Woodstock",  which  was  a  very  meaningful  thing  for  him. 

I  won't  compare  Eldridge  and  Timothy  but  they're  two  of  the  most  brilliant 
people  I've  ever  met.  They  have  a  real  respect  for  one  another  and  they  have  a 
lot  to  learn  from  one  another.  There's  a  real  .sense  of  friendship  between  them. 
Eldridge's  whole  understanding  about  acid  and  dope  is  really  right  on.  When  we 
went  to  Algiers  we  found  out  that  his  favorite  records  are  by  Bob  Dylan  ami 
Leonard  Cohen  so  we  bought  him  a  whole  bunch  of  their  records.  But  he's  been 
learning  a  lot  from  Timothy. 

And  Timothy  and  Rosemary  .  .  .  you  go  into  their  room  and  it's  this  totally 
psychedelic  room  with  all  these  bri,ght  colors  and  incense  an*'  warmth  ar.d  you 
see  copies  of  all  Kim  II  Sung's  works  that  Timothy's  reading.  He's  tripping  on 
reading  it.  It's  like  this  whole  new  thing  that  really  fits  in.  His  becoming  a  revo- 
lutionary is  something  that  some  people  view  as  just  another  trip  or  that  he's 
mouthing  words  that  he  doesn't  believe  like  he's  been  brainwashed  or  somethinr.. 
but  I  found  by  being  with  him  that  it's  a  natural  i)rocess.  that  he's  struggling 
through  things  and  finding  that  his  progression  toward  wanting  to  become  a  revo- 
lutionary is  a  very  natural  thing. 

On  page  34,  Special  Agent  Strange  was  asked  to  provide  a  list  of  brotherhood 
members  who  are  believed  to  have  obtained  multiple  passports  falsely  identifying 
themselves.  A  list  of  brotherhood  members  believed  to  have  obtained  one  or 
more  passports  under  assumed  names  follows : 

The  Beothebhood — Master  List  (Passsport)  April  18,  1973 

ackeey,  robert  dale 

Secured  PPT  #  K696983  at  San  Francisco  5/26/69  (in  true  name). 
Secured  PPT  #  K157638  at  San  Francisco  11/21/69;  in  name  of  Christopher, 
Robert  John. 


Secured  PPT  #  B2081110  at  San  Francisco  9/9/71  (in  true  name). 
Status.— Complaint  18  USC  1542— Secured  by  SFFO  4/18/73. 


Secured  PPT  #  N1239807  at  Los  Angeles  10/16/68  (in  true  name). 

Secured  PPT  #  A1787934  at  Los  Angeles  8/19/70;  in  name  of  Schmitt,  Carl 

i8'fo*«».— Complaint  18  USC  1542— Secured  7/25/72. 


Secured  PPT  #  E042S02  at  Los  Angeles  1/9/64  in  true  name). 
Renewed  at  Los  Angeles  12/20/66. 

Secured  PPT  #  H  046053  at  Los  Angeles  2/13/67 ;  in  name  of  Levine,  Jonathan 


Secured  PPT  #  H  1215898  at  Los  Angeles  10/18/67  (in  true  name). 

Secured  PPT  #  K725942  at  Los  Angeles  5/26/69;  in  name  of  Bliss,  IVHchael 

Secured  PPT  #  B388181  at  Los  Angeles  3/10/71 ;  in  name  of  Mooney,  Richard 

Status.—  18  USC  1542  2/22/78. 


Secured  PPT  #  Z  748300  at  Seville.  Spain  12/27/67  (in  true  name) . 
Secured  PPT  #  K  657198  at  New  York  5/9/69 ;  in  name  of  Jacobs,  Paul  Irvin. 
Status. — Pending  prosecution  in  New  York. 


Secured  PPT  #  J  043040  at  Los  Angeles  2/6/68  (in  true  name) . 

Secured  PPT  #  K  10798*4  at  San  Francisco  7/2/69 ;  in  name  of  Crockett,  Ira  Lee. 

Secured  replacement  PPT  #  K  1494385  at  Los  Angeles  10/2/69;  in  name  of 

Crockett  (Claimed  K  1079844  lost). 
Secured  PPP  #  A  1804757  at  Los  Angeles  10/1/60 ;  in  name  of  Parks,  Rodney. 
Applied  for  PPT  at  Portland,  Oregon  on  12/18/72  ;  in  name  of  Haul,  Jason  Emile 

(not  issued). 
Applied  for  PPT  at  San  Francisco  on  2/28/73;  in  name  of  Hyatt,  Bobby  Joe 

(not  issued). 
Status.— IndictQ^  two  counts  18  USC  1,542  on  7/3/72.  Fugitive— no  bail.  Bench 

warrant  outstanding. 


Secured  PPT  #  K  029312  at  Los  Angeles  1/6/69  (in  true  name). 

Secured  PPT  #  A  1706031  at  San  Francisco  8/18/70 ;  in  name  of  Hanson,  John 

Status. — Under  investigation. 


Secured  PPT  #  K  693981  at  San  Francisco  5/20/69   (in  name  of  Strickland, 

Albert  Lee). 
Status. — Presented  to  U.S.  Attorney,  San  Francisco,  May  1972. 


Secured  PPT  #  K  808064  at  New  York  5/22/69    (in  name  of  Greer,  Jason 


Secured  PPT  #  J  1360950  at  Los  Angeles  12/9/66  (in  true  name). 

Secured  PPT  #  B  2219108  at  Los  Angeles  11/1/71  (in  name  of  Ruggles,  Michael 

Duncan ) . 
Status.— Indicted  one  count  18  USC  1542  on  1/22/73.  Pled  guilty  3/26/73— to  be 

.sentenced  5/7/73. 



Secured  PPT  #  A  1789701  at  Los  Angeles  8/24/70  (in  that  name). 

Secured  PPT  #  B  412460  at  Honolulu  3/26/71   (in  name  of  Gibson,  Richard 

Status. — Under  investigation. 


Secured  PPT  #  B  1574311  at  San  Francisco  7/7/71  (in  name  of  Jacobs,  Paul 

Michael ) . 
Status.— Comiplaint  18  USC  1542  at  San  Franscico  11/15/72.  Placed  as  hold  with 

San  Bernardino  Sheriff's  Office. 


Secured  PPT  #  B  1347656  at  Los  Angeles  7/9/71  (in  that  name). 

Secured  PPT  #  B  1753065  at  Los  Angeles  7/29/71  (in  the  name  of  Gates,  Ronald 

Thomas ) . 
Status. — Under  investigation. 


Secured  PPT  #  J  498838  at  Los  Angeles  5/1/68  (in  name  of  Stanton,  Mark). 
Secured  PPT  #  A  200927  at  Los  Angeles  2/25/70  (in  true  name). 
Status. — Under  investigation. 


Secured  PPT  #  B  843252  at  Los  Angeles  5/12/71  (in  name  of  Cromwell,  Gary 
)S^a*«s.— Complaint  18  USC  1542  secured  7/25/72. 


Secured  PPT  #B  188729  at  Los  Angeles  6/5/61  (in  true  name). 

Secured  PPT  #  Z  33660S  at  Leopoldville  7/27/64  (in  same  name). 

Secured  replacement  PPT  #Z  706672  at  Paris  12/21/64.  Claimed  Z  336608  lost. 

Secured  PPT  #  A  1866965  at  New  York  9/3/70  (in  true  name). 

Secured  PPT  #B  2020957  at  Los  Angeles  10/27/71  (in  name  of  McFarr,  Malcolm 

Status. — Under  investigation. 


Secured  PPT  #  K  030398  at  Los  Angeles  1/9/69  (in  true  name) . 

Secured  PPT  #K  1562638  at  Los  Angeles  11/17/69  (in  name  of  Turner,  Paul 

Secured  PPT  #  Z  1603319  at  Costa  Rica  7/7/72  (in  name  of  Robertson,  Henry 

Status.— Indicted  two  counts  18  USC  1542  1/22/73. 


Secured  PPT    (number  unknown)    at  Chicago  9/22/70    (in  name  of  MeXellis, 

William  John). 
Status. — Under  investigation. 


Secured  PPT  #   (?)  at  Los  Angeles  11/24/69  (in  true  name). 

Secured  PPT  #  B  399506  at  Los  Angeles  3/25/71  (in  name  of  Carter,  Joseph 

/SfiaiMS.— Complaint— 18  USC  1542  7/25/72. 


Secured  PPT  #  J  049406  at  Los  Angeles  2/26/68  (in  true  name). 

Secured  replacement  PPT  #  K  1561436  at  Los  Angeles  11/12/69  (in  true  name). 


Secured  PPT  #  B  1224710  at  New  York  6/21/71  (in  name  of  Viertel,  Richard 

Lon ) . 
Status. — Under  investigation. 


Secured  PPT   (number  not  legible)  at  Sau  Francisco,  November  1972  (iu  tliat 

Note. — No  birth  record  in  that  name. 
Status. — Under  investigation. 


Secured  PPT  #  B  2136275  at  Seattle  10/22/71  (iu  that  name). 

Secured  replacement  PPT  #  Z  1422924  at  Tokyo,  Japan  12/30/71.  Claimed  B 

2136275  lost. 
*9ffltMS.— Under  investigation.  Identity  unknown.  No  birth  record  in  that  name 
in  Colorado. 


Subject's  twin  brother,  Jeffry  Clark  Newman  secured  PPT  #  J  1239252  at  Los 
Angeles  10/14/68.  When  subject  was  arrested  in  Amsterdam  3/9/72,  he  had  it 
in  his  possession  and  admitted  using  Jeffry's  passport  wliich  Jeffry  had  re- 
ported lost. 

James  secured  PPT  #  B  2298987  at  San  Francisco  11/17/71  (iu  name  of  Parker. 
Jeffrey  Alan). 

Status.— Prosecution  declined  by  U.S.  Attorney  San  Francisco. 


Reportedly  secured  PPT  #  H  1215905  at  Los  Angeles  10/18/67  (in  name  of  Lynd, 

Status. — PPT  record  search  requested. 


Secured  PPT  #  K  1608803  at  Los  Angeles  12/8/69  (in  that  name). 

Secured  PPT  #  B  2082142  at  San  Francisco  9/13/71  (in  name  of  Wideman,  Jesse 

Stanford).  ^^^^ 

Status.— Presented  to  U.S.  Attorney,  San  Francisco.  May  1972. 


Secured  PPT  #  B  801984  at  Los  Angeles  4/21/71  (in  name  of  Garrity,  Michael 

Thomas).  „  ,<^„  ,„„ 

Status.— ComvlSiint  18  USC  1542  secured  3/9/73.  Indicted  six  counts  3/26/ (o— 
Failed  to  appear  4/24/73.  Bench  Warrant  outstanding. 


Secured  PPT  #  J  498837  at  Los  Angeles  5/1/68  (in  name  of  Nicklesburg,  Lee 

Status. — Under  investigation. 


Secured  PPT  #  1890248  at  New  York  10/15/70  (in  name  of  Gleason,  Graylin 

Secured  replacement  PPT  #  A  1981937  at  Los  Angeles  12/21/70.  Claimed  A 

1890248  (lost  in  same  name) . 
Secured  replacement  PPT  #  Z  1429835  (?)  at  Madrid,  Spain,  7/16/71.  (in  same 

Probable  true  name  :  McGuire,  Francis. 
Status. — Under  investigation. 


Secured  PPT  #  C  021145  at  San  Francisco  1/19/70  (in  name). 
True  name. — Blackmun,  Barrel  David. 
Status. — Under  Investigation. 



Secured  PPT  #  G  893288  at  Los  Angeles  8/9/66  (in  true  name). 

Secured  PPT  #  A  202115  at  Los  Angeles  2/26/70   (in  name  of  Drew,  Sean). 

Secured  PPT  #  B  880488  at  Honolulu  9/30/71  (in  true  name). 

Status.— Complaint— 18  USC  1542  2/22/73. 


Secured  PPT  #  B  1862111  at  San  Francisco  8/24/71   (in  that  name). 
True  name — Anthony  "Tony"  Sage. 
Status. — Under  investigation. 


Secur-vi  PPT  #  B  3900545  at  Los  Angeles  3/1.5/71  (in  name  of  Phillips,  Mitchell 

Secured  PPT  #  B  1757044  at  Los  Angeles  S/3/71  (in  name  of  Allen,  John  Carl — 

a  joint  PPT  with  wife  (  ?)  Pamela  Jean  Allen) . 
Status.— Corn-plaint   18    USC    1542    on    7/25/72.    Indicted    two   counts    18   USC 

1542  on  10/11/72.  On  1/4/73  pled  guilty  to  one  count  of  PPT  fraud  (2nd  count 

dismissed)   and  one  count  Selective  Service  violation.  Sentenced  to  3  years 

on  each  count,  concurrent. 


Secured  PPT  #  B  116571  at  Honolulu  7/15/71  (in  name  of  Black,  Jacob  Martin). 
Status.-Indicted.  one  count  IS  USC  1542  at  Honolulu  10/6/72.  Fugitive. 

[In  pounds] 

Calendar  year- 



1968  1S69  1970  1971  1972  June 

Domestic  (OEA) 239  234  882  1,151  73 

Ports  and  borders  (customs  and  INS)..  132  1,602  3,811  6,900  8,754  4,447 

DEA/forelgn  cooperative... 402  406  3,211  14,406  20,189  6,630 

Total... 534  ^247  A256  22, 188  30, 094  11,150 

Me.  Gene  R.  Haislip,  Acting  Chief,  Congressional  Relations  Section, 
Acting  Chief,  Scientific  Services  Division 

hashish  and  "hashish  oil"  st.atistics 

The  total  number  of  marihuana  exhibits  and  percent  of  the  total  workload 
over  the  past  three  fiscal  years  are  as  follows : 







Number  of  marihuana  exhibits 

Percent  of  total  workload 






Note:  A  further  breakdown  of  the  abovt  totals  into  drug  codes  is  listed  below. 


Fiscal  year- 
Drug  code  and  item  1971  1972 

7360-Marihu3na -  1,693  2,864 

7361— Extract  of  cannabis 652  605 

7362— Fluid  extract  of  cannabis 13  17 

7363— Tincture  oi  cannabis 28  13 

7354— Marihuana  (granulated,  powder,  etc.) 4,072  5,334 

7365— Marihuana  plant - 617  286 

7366— Marihuana  seeds 217  197 

7367— Marihuana  rcsin  (hashish) (')  0/ 

7368— Marihuana  oil  (hash  oil) (0  (0 

7370— THC  (synthetic).. .---  1  0 

7371— TKC(oinanic) .-  5  3 

7372— Cannfii;i  Jiol 0  0 

7373— Cannablnol 0  0 

1  Not  reported  as  hashish  or  marihuana  oil  per  se  for  the  fiscal  year  1971  and  1972  periods. 

The  above  data  can  be  broken  down  into  refined  (prepared)  and  non-refined 
(non-prepared)  general  categories. 

(Number  of  exhibits) 






(July  and 


Extract  cannabis 

Fluid  extract  cannabis 

Tincture  cannabis 



19  .. 

490  " 
0  .. 
15  .. 



THC  (synthetic) 



[Number  of  exhibits] 

Fiscal  year- 


(July  and 

1971  1972  1973  August) 

Marihuana 1,693  2,864  4,254  1.031 

Marihuana  (granulated,  powder) 4,072  5,334  9,394  2,038 

Marihuana  plant 617  28d  266  2i 

Marihuana  seeds 217  197  301  68 

Total,  (nonprepared  exhibits) - 

On  the  basis  of  the  most  recent  complete  year  reported  above,  the  range  of 
tetrahydro  cannablnol  (THC)  content  of  those  exhibits  reported  specifically  as 
"Marihuana  Resin  (Hashish)"  and  "Marihuana  Oil"  are  as  follows: 

(In  percent] 

THC  content 




Marihuana  resin  (hashish) 

, 0.1 





As  indicated  in  table  #3,  the  laboratory  analysis  data  did  not  separate  "Mari- 
huana Resin  (Hashish)"  or  "Marihuana  Oil"  into  individual  categories  before 
FY-1973.  However,  inspection  of  this  table  reveals  that  the  "hashish"  exhibits 
vvere  probably  previously  (FY-71  and  72)  reported  as  Extract  of  Cannabis. 

Marihuana  oil  was  first  encountered  in  February  of  1972.  Follov\ing  subsequent 
encounters,  it  was  assigned  a  specific  drug  code  during  the  first  part  of  FY-73. 
"Marihuana  Resin  (Hashish)"  was  also  assigned  a  specific  drug  code  at  this  time 
as  indicated  above. 

As  regards  the  total  quantity  of  "Hashish"  removed  from  the  domestic  market. 
The  following  data  are  presented  from  the  Statistical  Report  on  Federal  Per- 
formance Measurements  for  FY-73. 


Fiscal  year 

1971                  1972                    1973 

1.054                    127                  1.148 

To  date  the  amount  of 

"Marihuana  Oil" 

encountered  is  as  follows : 

Fiscal  year— 

1974  (July 
1973       and  August) 

49.3                    15.1 

It  should  be  pointed  out  that  the  concentration  of  THC  in  "Marihuana  Oil" 
is  continuing  to  increase.  The  first  few  exhibits  reported  had  concentrations  of 
THC  no  higher  than  .30%.  Some  of  the  latest  exhibits  reported  have  concen- 
trations of  THC  up  to  90%. 

Following  is  additional  information  on  marihuana  in  general.  This  informa- 
tion includes  all  types  of  marihuana  exhibits  encountered  in  the  laboratory  sys- 
tem during  Fiscal  year  '73. 


1st  2d  3d  4lh  Lab 

Laboratory  quarter  quarter  quarter  quarter  totals 

Chicago 602  609  339  594  2,144 

Dallas 586  555  707  657  2  505 

Miami 380  395  300  440  1,515 

New  York.. 303  283  235  273  1,094 

Special  testing. 14  24  39  24  101 

San  Francisco 306  213  258  216  993 

Washington 1,662  1,759  1,999  1,391  6,811 

Total  exhibits 15, 163 

Total  workload  exhibits 44,  619 

No.  DEA  Marihuana  exhibits  (includes  DALE) 3,241 

No.  State,  local,  and  other  Federal  marihuana  exhibits 11,  922 

Percentage  of  total  workload  {all  exhibits  examined) 


DEA   07 

Other 27 

Percentage  of  total  marihuana  exhibits  only 


DEA   21 

Other 79 

\  90 

[From  the  Washington  Post.  Aug.  24,  1973] 

U.S.  Losing  Drlg-Smuggling  War 

(By  Jack  Anderson  aud  Les  "Wliitten) 

The  government's  war  against  drug  smuggling,  trumpeted  as  one  of  tlie  major 
domestic  successes  of  the  Xixon  administration,  is  losing  the  battle  to  fleets  of 
small  private  planes  and  fast  boats. 

Classified  docume.iis  from  the  Customs  Bureau  made  available  to  us  demon- 
strate the  extent  of  :  1..^  government's  failure.  They  flatly  state  that  the  narcotics 
agents  cannot  compae  with  the  ingenuity  of  the  smugglers. 

The  dope  runners  have  organized  the  most  important  small  boat  operation  since 
the  evacuation  of  Dunkirk,  and  the  government's  fragmented  narcotics  forces 
are  unable  to  cope  with  them. 

"We  must  undertake  a  program  to  provide  Customs  control  of  small  boat  traflSc 
entering  the  United  States,"  one  of  the  documents  asserts.  "Smuggling  of  nar- 
cotic drugs  by  small  boats  is  a  serious  problem.  At  present,  we  have  no  means 
of  effecting  interdiction  of  drugs  entering  the  United  States  by  this  means." 

The  high  flying  dope  peddlers  operate  v.ith  equal  freedom,  hauling  their  cargo 
of  white  powder  from  Mexico  and  Canada  with  virtually  no  opposition. 

"Smuggling  by  means  of  private  aircraft  has  grown  in  a  situation  where  con- 
trol of  this  commerce,  for  technical  reasons,  was  not  possible,"  the  documents 

In  short,  the  situation  is  so  out  of  hand  that  Mafia  and  free-lance  traffickers 
have  virtual  carte  blanche  to  haul  their  wares  across  the  United  States  borders. 

Federal  anti-narcotics  officials  have  made  elaborate  plans  to  increase  their 
efficiency  in  the  air  and  on  the  water,  but  budget  conscious  bureaucrats  have  cut 
out  this  capability.  For  this  fiscal  year  alone,  the  Office  of  Management  and 
Budget  has  sliced  the  Customs  budget  for  these  plans  from  $11.4  million  to  $3.3 

This  penny-wise  policy  is  preventing  narcotic-  agents  from  acquiring  sophisti- 
cate<l  tools,  including  aircraft  with  special  tracking  equipment,  boats  fast  enough 
to  catch  smugglers'  craft,  and  sensors  to  seek  out  the  dope  runners. 

The  drug  fighters  are  using  some  electronic  sensors  borrowed  from  the  mili- 
tary, but  find  them  virtually  worthless. 

The  heavily  publicized  seizures  of  millions  of  dollars  worth  of  narcotics  are 
largely  the  work  of  old-fashioned  customs  and  narcotics  agents  at  ports  or  else- 
where, based  on  leads  from  painstakingly  nurtured  informants.  Arrests  of 
smugglers  through  random  checks  of  small  planes  or  boats  have  been  few  and 

Presently,  the  air-sea  fight  against  drugs  is  badly  fragmented  between  Customs 
at  the  Treasury  Department  and  the  new  Drug  Enforcement  Administration 
(DEA)  at  the  Justice  Department.  A  memorandum  describing  a  meeting  last 
month  between  Customs'  air  intrusion  coordinator  and  George  Brosan,  a  top 
Customs  enforcement  official,  makes  clear  that  neither  agency  knows  what  the 
other  is  doing. 

There  are  about  50  planes  of  various  kinds  available  at  any  one  time  to  the  two 
agencies  for  air  and  boat  surveillance.  But  without  cooperation  between  them 
through  use  of  informers  who  signal  the  departures  of  a  shipment  from  some 
lonely  harbor  or  airport,  the  planes  are  useless.  They  cannot  "picket-line"  the 
entire  border. 

DEA,  which  may  wind  up  with  the  whole  program  eventually,  is  too  busy  re- 
organizing to  take  on  any  new  duties,  particularly  ones  as  complicated  as  the 
"Air  Intrusion"  operation. 

The  overall  mess  is  best  summed  up  by  Brosan  : 

"Both  the  Drug  Enforcement  Administration  and  the  Immigration  and  Nat- 
uralization Service  have  token  programs.  Neither  can  compare  with  the  present 
Customs  effort,  and  possibly  some  thought  ought  to  be  given  to  combining  the 
three  programs." 

CIA  Pig- Sticker— The  men  who  work  for  the  Central  Intelligence  Agency  are 
traditionally  regarded  as  closemouthed  characters  who  spend  their  waking 
hours  tracking  spies  and  tapping  telephones. 

Angus  MacLean  Thuermer,  the  agency's  "public  information  officer,"  defies 
tradition.  He  is  one  of  the  nation's  foremost  "pig  stickers,"  and  he  doesn't  mind 
talking  about  it. 

He  became  addicted  to  the  exotic  sport  of  "pig  sticking"  nicely  underplayed 
British  term  for  "hunting  wild  boar  on  horseback  with  a  spear" — while  serving 
with  the  Foreign  Service  in  India. 


Last  year,  Thuermer  went  back  to  India  for  another  hog-  limit.  When  lie 
returned  to  the  States,  he  broke  CIA  tradition  and  publishtd  his  memoirs  of 
the  hxmt  in  an  obscure  weekly  newspaper  called  the  "Piedmont  Virginian." 

Although  Thuermer  rarely  has  anything  to  say  to  reporters  about  CIA  affairs, 
he  waxes  poetic  about  pig  sticking. 

Footnote:  So  proud  of  his  pig-sticking  prowess  is  Thurrmer  that  hf  keeps 
Ms  spear  in  his  office.  He  invited  us  over  to  see  it,  but  we  politely  refused  when 
he  added  that  "it  isn't  every  day  that  you  get  to  stick  an  Anderson  man." 

Francis  G.  Knight,  Directok,  Passport  Office,  June  8, 1973 

On  September  15,  1972,  I  testified  before  the  Internal  Security  Subcommittee 
of  the  Senate  Judiciary  Committee  concerning  passport  fvnud,  particularly  ;is 
it  relates  to  the  world  narcotics  traffic.  At  that  time.  I  also  testified  concerning 
passport  fraud  in  general  and  the  problem  the  Passport  OflSce  faces  in  combating 
this  criminal  activity. 

The  passport  fraud  statistics  I  submitted  on  September  15,  1972  are  sadly  out 
of  date  now.  The  statistics  available  today  show  that  passport  fraud  committed 
within  the  United  States  continues  to  increase  in  volume.  I  would  like  to  submit, 
for  the  record,  a  chart  (number  1)  setting  forth  the  fraud  statistics  for  fiscal 
years  1970  through  1972  and  for  the  first  11  months  of  fiscal  year  1973.  The  chart 
also  gives  a  month-by-month  breakdown  of  fraud  statistics  for  the  first  11  mouths 
of  fiscal  year  1973. 

As  you  will  see  from  the  chart,  the  number  of  totaling  622  detected  thus 
far  in  fiscal  year  1973  already  exceeds  the  total  for  fiscal  year  1972,  which  was 
614.  Perhaps  of  greater  significance  is  the  increase  in  the  number  of  domestic 
frauds,  that  is,  those  frauds  committed  within  the  United  States  detected  thus  far 
in  fiscal  year  1973.  During  the  entire  fiscal  year  of  1972.  we  uncovered  300  do- 
mestic frauds.  During  the  first  11  months  of  this  fiscal  year,  we  uncovered  362 
frauds.  This  is  an  increase  of  62.  Averaging  out  the  frauds  for  the  entire  year 
shows  that  v.e  have  an  increase  of  over  31%  this  fiscal  year  over  last  fiscal  year. 
Also,  it  is  startling  to  note  that  the  number  of  domestic  frauds  detected  in  the  first 
11  months  of  this  fiscal  year,  which  amounts  to  362,  in  more  that  double  the  num- 
ber of  domestic  frauds  detected  for  the  entire  fiscal  year  1970.  Since  every  pass- 
port fraud  is  perpetrated  for  the  piu-pose  of  covering  another  illegal  activity,  this 
enormous  increase  in  domestic  passport  frauds  from  1970  to  the  current  time  dis- 
turbs me  greatly.  One  of  the  principal  reasons  for  my  roncprn  is  the  fact  that 
persons  involved  in  domestic  passport  frauds,  especially  at  this  time,  are  engaged 
in  trafficking  in  narcotics.  For  this  reason,  I  should  like  to  direct  this  statement 
to  the  domestic  fraud  picture. 

A  vivid  example  of  the  currency  of  the  narcotics-connected  passport  fraud 
problem  is  shown  by  the  apprehension  by  Customs  agents  on  May  12,  1973  in 
Boston  of  John,  Kathy.  Richard,  Peter,  and  Dennis  Murray  for  importing  1.5 
million  dollars  worth  of  hashish.  It  was  discovered  that  the  Murrays  had  been 
traveling  as  John,  Paula,  Richard.  Kathy,  and  Christopher  Mosley  on  United 
States  passports  obtained  by  fraud. 

Investigation  thus  far  conducted  by  the  Passport  Office  with  the  assistance  of 
the  Di\isiou  of  Vital  Statistics,  Department  of  Health.  Education  and  Welfare, 
and  officials  in  New  Jersey  disclosed  that,  in  each  instance,  counterfeit  Nebraska 
birth  certificates  and  counterfeit  New  Jersey  drivers'  licenses  were  used  as  evi- 
dence of  birth  and  identity  to  obtain  these  five  passports.  In  addition,  Peter 
and  Dennis  Murray  had  obtained  two  other  passports  using  counterfeit  do<-,i- 
mentation.  To  add' to  the  problem,  it  has  been  ascertained  that  the  Murrays' 
father  and  uncle  had  passports  obtained  in  false  identities  using  counterfeit 
dociunentary  evidence.  Thus,  in  connection  with  this  one  recent  drug  seizui-e,  nine 
fraudulent  passport  applications  have  surfaced. 

The  Murrays  have  been  identified  with  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love,  an 
international  narcotics  smuggling  ring,  originally  founded  by  Timothy  Leary 
and  referred  to  in  my  testimony  of  September  15, 1972. 

At  that  time.  I  stated  that  91  passport  files  had  been  located  which  related  to 
the  Brotherhood :  that  40  cases  had  been  documented  and  .sent  to  the  Office  of 
Security  of  the  Department  of  State  for  investigation  as  passport  frauds :  and 
that  another  10  to  12  cases  previously  sent  for  investigation  had  been  tentatively 
identified  as  members  of  the  Brotherhood. 

Todav,  almost  250  flies  have  been  located  and  120  passport  frauds  established. 
I  would  like  to  submit,  for  the  record,  a  chart  (number  2)  showing  the  growth 


of  our  investigation  of  passport  frauds  connected  with  the  Brotherhood.  Although 
the  Brotherhood  is  the  largest  narcotics  organization  perpetrating  passport 
frauds  uncovered  to  date,  it  is  but  one  of  several  groups  which  are  committing 
passport  frauds  for  the  purpose  of  facilitating  the  international  trafficking  of 
narcotics.  Page  2  of  the  chart  also  reflects  the  growing  trend  toward  the  use  of 
counterfeit  birth  documents.  These  documents  are  of  a  high  quality,  which  makes 
their  detection  very  difficult  absent  a  referral  to  the  state  which  purportedly 
issued  the  documents.  This  fact  illustrates  the  sophistication  of  the  fraud  per- 
petrators which  confronts  the  Passport  Office  at  tlie  present  time. 

Another  reason  for  my  concern  is  the  use  of  United  States  passports  obtained 
fraudulently  by  illegal  aliens  in  the  United  States.  This  type  of  illegal  activity  has 
been  the  subject  of  Congressional  concern  for  some  time. 

In  my  testimony  of  September  15,  1972,  I  submitted  background  information 
concerning  Dominican  and  Mexican  nationals  illegally  in  tlie  United  States  who 
were  using  birth  certificates  issued  for  persons  bom  in  Puerto  Rico  or  the  several 
states  bordering  Mexico  for  the  puri^ose  of  obtaining  United  States  passports. 
This  type  of  fraud  is  not  limited  to  nationals  of  Mexico  or  the  Dominican 

On  October  6,  1972,  the  Immigration  and  Naturalization  Service  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Justice  received  information  that  a  group  of  Philippine  nationals  illegally 
in  the  United  States  had  obtained  United  States  passports  in  false  identities.  To 
date,  investigation  by  both  the  Immigration  and  Naturalization  Service  and  the 
Department  of  State's  Office  of  Security  have  documented  23  such  cases. 

In  each  case,  the  Philippine  national  was  approached  by  a  so-called  "broker", 
an  individual  dealing  in  fraudulent  citizenship,  travel,  and  identity  documents. 
For  a  fee  of  $2,000,  the  broker  provided  the  alien  with  documentation  showing 
birth  in  the  United  States.  The  alien  applied  for  a  passport  using  the  birth  certi- 
ficate provided  by  the  broker.  In  most  cases,  the  broker  served  as  the  alien's  iden- 
tifying witness  when  the  alien  applied  for  the  passport  in  his  false  identity. 

In  at  least  12  cases,  the  "broker"  identified  the  aliens  when  tliey  applied  for 
loans  in  order  to  pay  the  broker's  $2,000-fee.  In  addition  to  the  $2,000-fee,  investi- 
gation indicates  that  these  Philippine  nationals  subsequently  were  subject  to 
blackmail  or  extortion  by  the  "broker". 

This  case  illustrates  the  type  of  "brokerage"  operation  through  which  aliens 
who  obtain  United  States  passports  in  false  identities  for  the  purpose  of  remain- 
ing in  the  United  States  illegally  are  then  victimized  by  the  "broker"  who  made 
the  aliens'  frauds  possible. 

A  significant  factor  in  the  statistics  for  the  first  six  mouths  of  fiscal  year  1973 
is  the  fact  that,  of  the  135  domestic  frauds  detected  during  that  period,  54  were 
discovered  in  the  application  stage  before  a  passport  was  issued.  This  compares 
with  the  figure  of  25  discovered  in  the  application  stage  for  the  same  period  in 
fiscal  year  1972. 

In  my  opinion,  the  dramatic  increase  in  the  detection  of  frauds  in  the  applica- 
tion stage  is  a  direct  result  of  fraud  seminars  being  conducted  by  attorneys  of 
the  Legal  Division  of  the  Passport  Office.  This  program  was  initiated  by  the 
Passport  Office  in  1972  when  it  became  apparent  that  domestic  passport  fraud 
was  on  the  increase.  To  date,  all  permanent  Passport  Office  personnel  in  the 
United  States  who  accept  or  adjudicate  passport  applications  have  attended  at 
least  one  of  these  seminars.  This  program  continues  with  the  goal  of  extending 
fraud  training  to  all  persons  taking  passport  applications. 

You  may  be  interested  to  know  that  enterprising  persons  involved  in  illegal 
activities  have  written  a  "manual"  on  how  to  get  documents  to  assume  a  fnlse 
identity.  The  "manual"  describes  how  the  documents  necessary  to  substantiate  the 
false  identity  can  be  obtained  from  official  government  sources.  It  also  describes 
in  detail  how  to  get  birth  certificates  and  identity  documents.  The  "manual" 
pays  the  Passport  Office  a  left-handed  compliment  by  emphasizing  the  fact  that 
the  United  States  passport  is  the  single  most  valuable  document  which  an  im- 
poster  can  have  to  substantiate  a  false  identity.  Possession  of  a  valid  passport  in 
a  false  identity  gives  the  alien,  narcotics  trafficker,  fugitive,  or  criminal  a  free- 
dom of  movement  which  would  otherwise  be  denied  to  him. 

A  few  days  ago,  the  Passport  Office  was  informed  that  the  manual  had  been 
revised.  Although  a  copy  is  not  available,  it  is  believed  that  those  portions  of  the 
manual  descriliing  how  to  obtain  a  valid  passport  in  a  false  identity  have  been 
the  subject  of  much  of  the  revision. 

While  the  fraud  seminar  program  has  proved  successful,  as  demonstrated  by 
the  dramatic  increase  in  the  number  of  frauds  detected  in  the  application  stage, 


it  is,  at  best,  only  a  partial  solution.  I  believe  that  more  frauds  would  be  detected 
in  tlie  application  stage  if  the  pressures  on  Passport  Office  personnel  are  reduced 
1*0  rG3.1istic  IgvgIs 

These  pressures  are  especially  acute  in  the  passport  field  agencies  where  the 
majority  of  all  United  States  passports  are  issued  and  where,  as  a  result,  the 
greatest  fraud  potential  exists.  In  this  regard,  I  would  like  to  submit  for  the 
record  a  copy  of  a  memorandmn  of  April  27,  1973  (number  3)  sent  to  me  by  Mr. 
William  E.  Duggan,  Chief  of  the  Passport  Office  Legal  Division.  This  memoran- 
dum vividly  portrays  some  of  the  problems  the  Passport  Office  confronts  in  com- 
bating passport  fraud.  Comment  number  one  on  page  two  of  this  memorandum  is 
significant  with  regard  to  the  detection  of  passport  fraud  in  the  application  stage. 

The  acceptance  of  passport  applications  by  non-Passport  Office  personnel  has 
relieved  to  some  degree  the  pressure  on  passport  field  agency  personnel  working 
day-after-day  under  the  stress  and  strain  of  handling  hundreds  of  passport  ap- 
plicants pushing  and  arguing  for  expeditious  service.  It  has  done  little  to  reduce 
the  other  pressures  since  each  application  must  be  examined  and  adjudicated 
by  Passport  Office  personnel  for  the  purpose  of  establishing  the  applicants  citizen- 
ship and  identity.  It  has  in  fact  increased  the  pressure  in  applications  where 
there  is  an  identity  and  possibly  a  fraud  question.  The  (luestion  which  might 
easily  be  resolved  by  a  trained  person  in  a  face-to-face  confrontation  cannot 
be  resolved  with  mere  documents  in  front  of  you.  Thus  more  paperwork  is 

The  Passport  Office  has  been  drowning  in  paper  work  involved  in  management 
studies,  reports,  statistics,  time-studies,  manpower  utilization  studies,  productivity 
analysis,  and  other  such  matters  which  seep  down  to  us  from  upper  echelons  of 
management  and  administration. 

However,  the  passport  field  agencies  are  not  the  only  areas  experiencing  acute 
pressures.  The  Legal  Division  of  the  Passport  Office,  with  many  responsibilities 
other  than  fraud  detection  and  processing,  has  at  present  ?.5  permanent  employees 
of  whom  only  9  are  attorneys.  This  staff  will  be  decreased  by  the  retirement  of 
one  attorney  on  .June  30,  1073.  To  give  you  a  better  understanding  of  the  law 
enforcement  procedures,  I  would  like  to  submit  for  the  record  a  copy  of  a 
memorandum  (No.  4)  which  describes  the  procedural  steps  involved  when  a 
fraud  is  uncovered  or  when  a  fraud  is  suspected  in  a  given  case.  Given  the  in- 
creasing number  of  passport  frauds,  the  limited  number  of  personnel  available  to 
process  these  cases  in  the  Legal  Division,  and  the  many  other  responsibilities  of 
the  Legal  Division,  it  is  obvious  that  the  fraud  seminars  conducted  by  Legal 
Division  attorneys,  as  valuable  as  the  seminars  are  proving,  imposes  tremendous 
strains,  physically  and  operationally,  on  the  legal  staff. 

Without  adequate  staffing,  the  pressures  on  the  Legal  Division  continue  to  in- 
crease and  an  exorbitant  amount  of  costly  overtime  is  the  only  answer.  In  due 
course,  a  point  will  be  reached  this  patchwork  remedy  will  become  counter- 

Even  when  fraud  cases  have  been  expeditiously  processed  through  the  Legal 
Division,  the  Passport  Office  is  frustrated  )>y  long  delays  by  the  Department's 
Office  of  Security  in  investigating  such  cases.  This  was  explained  in  considerable 
detail  in  my  testimony  of  September  15.  1972.  To  update  this  data.  I  would  like 
to  submit,  for  the  record,  a  copy  of  a  chart  (No.  5)  which  shows  the  number  of 
cases  pending  investigation  by  the  Office  of  Security  as  of  April  24,  1973. 

The  explanation  given  by  the  Office  of  Security  for  the  number  of  delinquent 
investigation  cases  continues  to  be  a  "shortage  of  manpower."  as  well  as  "several 
high  priority  requirements  in  other  aspects  of  the  total  security  program." 

I  do  not  take  exception  to  the  explanation  furnished  by  the  Office  of  Security. 
I  am  reasonably  sure  that  the  office  is  interested  in  endeavoring  to  meet  our 
requirements  and.  I  might  say  from  personal  observation,  the  local  field  agents 
are  inten.sely  interested  in  helping  us  combat  passport  frauds.  I  think  I  can  state 
without  fear  of  contradiction  that  this  interest  stems  from  the  fact  that  passport 
fraud  cases,  as  a  category,  offer  real  challenges  to  a  professional  investigation. 

It  seems  eminently  clear  that  the  Office  of  Security  does  not  have  sufficient 
manpower  to  meet  our  passport  fraud  problems  and  that  the  "delinquency"  is 
due.  in  good  measure,  to  greater  priority  given  to  other  "security  requirements." 

By  now,  it  should  be  obvious,  as  illustrated  by  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal 
Love,  the  Philippine  alien  cases,  and  the  "manual"  on  fraudulent  identities 
which  I  have  described,  that  the  individuals  committing  passport  fraud  are  be- 
coming increasingly  more  knowledgeable  in  methods  of  obtaining  fraudulent  birth 
and  identity  documentation.  We  are  endeavoring  to  meet  this  increased  knowl- 

23-538—73 7 


edge  on  the  part  of  our  '-opposition"  by  maldng  our  personnel  more  alert  and 
knowledgeable  in  detecting  symptoms  of  fraud.  It  is  an  established  fact  that 
careful  and  thorough  examination  by  trained  personnel  of  passport  applications 
and  their  accompanying  documents  will  result  in  the  detection  of  many  frauds 
in  the  application  stage.  A  face-to-face  confrontation  increases  the  possibility 
that  such  frauds  will  be  detected  before  the  passports  are  issued  and  used  in 
the  furtherance  of  illegal  activities.  At  the  present  time,  while  we  are  doing  our 
best,  our  efforts  are  diminished  and  frustrated  by  the  inadequate  facilities  and 
insufficient  personnel  furnished  to  the  Passport  Office. 

Passport  fraud  as  it  pertains  to  narcotics  and  to  illegal  aliens  is  only  one 
phase  of  a  serious  problem  which  we,  in  the  Passport  Office  have  struggled  with 
for  years  and  called  to  the  attention  of  anyone  who  would  listen.  Frankly.  I  am 
very  discouraged  about  the  whole  situation  and  I  don't  believe  that  a  piecemeal 
approach  to  the  problem  will  be  successful.  One  hole  in  the  dike  may  be  plugged 
up,  but  two  others  will  develop. 

The  Passport  Office  has  been  fighting,  for  years,  this  battle  of  fraudulent 
documentation  to  protect  the  integrity  of  the  United  States  passport  as  well  as 
the  ensuing  evils  to  society,  such  as  illegal  drug  activity,  which  flows  from 
the  use  of  such  a  valuable  document.  However,  this  evil  is  not  restricted  to  pass- 
ports; it  also  involves  credit  cards,  social  security  cards,  welfare  and  pension 
payments,  birth  records,  drivers'  licenses,  and  the  list  goes  on  ad  nauseam 
into  the  very  fabric  of  our  society. 

In  summary,  I  think  it  is  plain  that  the  problem  of  the  effects  of  fraudulent 
documentation  and  impersonation  are  not  restricted  to  the  passport  area.  It  is 
symptomatic  of  one  of  the  serious  ills  of  our  society  at  the  present  time,  and 
it  is  time  we  work  together  and  say  a  vigorous  "no"  to  the  enemies  of  our  society. 

It  is  with  considerable  regret  that  I  advise  you  that  in  my  opinion  no  action 
will  be  taken  by  the  Executive  Branch  of  our  Government  imtil  such  time  the 
Congress  steps  in  with  clear  language  legislation  to  make  the  use  and  presenta- 
tion of  fraudulent  identifying  documents  to  any  Government  Department  or 
Agency  or  unit  thereof  a  very  expensive,  unprofitable  and  unpleasant  experience 
for  the  perpetrator.  Furthermore,  the  Congress  should  insist  upon  swift  prosecu- 
tion of  these  cases  for  two  valid  and  relatively  simple  reasons.  Swift  prosecu- 
tion by  the  Department  of  Justice  would  engender  second  thoughts  by  criminals 
engaged  in  the  practice  of  deceiving  Government  Agencies  by  the  use  of  false 
identity  documents  and  this,  in  turn,  would  help  put  the  prodiicers  of  such  docu- 
ments "out  of  a  very  lucrative  bu.siness  which  is  presently  flourishing  around 
the  United  States.  The  second  reason  is  that  the  salutary  effect  of  swift  and  stem 
government  action  will  save  millions  of  dollars  now  wasted  or  irretrievably  lost 
by  such  Federal  and  private  operations  as  the  Passport  Office.  Social  Security, 
Insurance  Companies,  Banks,  Health  Services,  Pension  Funds  and  even  extend  to 
the  world-wide  credit  card  racket.  It  is  a  known  fact  that  the  United  States 
Passport  is  used  the  world  over  as  an  instrument  of  identity.  Therefore,  it  makes 
sense  to  see  to  it  that  it  is  protected  by  law  and  that  the  Passport  Office  is  given 
financial  and  administrative  support  in  its  role  to  maintain  the  integrity  of  the 

In  my  considered  opinion,  it  has  been  proven  impossible  to  obtain  from  the 
Executive  Bureaucracy  the  required  support,  consideration  and  protection  which 
the  Passport  Office  requires  to  carry  out  its  statutory  functions  to  provide  effi- 
cient and  effective  passport  and  citizenship  services  to  United  States  citizens 
both  here  and  overseas. 


1.  Fraud  Statistics— fiscal  year  1970  through  May  fiscal  year  1973  and 
fraud  statistics  breakdown — fiscal  year  1973 

2.  Brotherhood  fraud  table 

3.  Memorandum  of  April  27,  1973  by  Mr.  Duggan 

4.  Procedures  used  in  the  processing  of  passport  fraud  cases 
.5.  Cases  pending  SY  investigation  as  of  April  24,  1973 



Fiscal  year 





1972  May) 






























Apr.  27,1973     June    1,1973 


Type  fraud: 



Identifying  witness 

False  statement 

Place  tiled: 

Los  Angeles 

San  Francisco 



Post  Office 

New  Yorl< 


Clerl<  of  court 


Date  filed  prior  1969 






Detected  before  issue 

San  Francisco 



Los  Angeles 

Lookout  system.. 

Counterfeit  birth  certificates 

Hospital  birth  certificates 






North  Carolina 


Referred  United  States  attorney. 


Prosecution  declined 







































































Note:  1  each  from  Iowa;  Albion,  New  York;  San  Diego  County;  Los  Angeles  County;  New  York  State;  Wisconsin;  Seattle 
County;  Syracuse,  New  York;  Orange  County,  California.  In  addition  counterfeit  birth  certificates  were  picked  up  in  a 
brotherhood  raid  from  Missouri  (2);  Nevada;  Seattle-King  County;  Washington;  Newark,  New  Jersey  and  Ohio. 


April  27,  1973. 
To :  PPT — Miss  Frances  G.  Knight 
From:  PT/L — William  E.  Duggan. 
Subject:  Observations  regarding  counter  work  at  New  York 

The  team  of  attorneys  observed  that  the  number  of  persons  applying  for  pass- 
ports in  the  New  York  Agency  began  to  accelerate  about  9:45.  The  number  of 
applicants  continued  to  increase  until  about  2:30  to  3:00  in  the  afternoon.  At 
that  time  there  were  in  the  neighborhood  of  20  to  25  or  possibly  30  applicants  in 
front  of  each  station.  The  number  of  applicants  gradually  diminished  until 
about  4  :00  when  there  were  about  10  applicants  in  front  of  each  station.  With 
the  closing  of  the  Agency  doors,  the  agents  were  able  to  complete  the  work  about 
4:45  or  5:00. 

Observations  indicated  that  each  agent  took  about  3  to  5  minutes  per  applicant. 
The  average  time  an  applicant  stood  in  line  during  the  peak  period  of  11  to  3 
was  about  45  minutes.  Obviously,  persons  are  not  in  the  best  frame  of  mind 
after  being  required  to  stand  in  line  for  this  length  of  time.  This  factor  is  men- 
tioned because  it  exerts  further  pressure  upon  the  agent  in  performing  his  job. 
Given  the  number  of  persons  in  line,  it  is  a  practical  impossibility  for  the  agents 
to  spend  more  than  3  to  5  minutes  with  each  applicant. 

The  following  conclusions  must  be  stated  in  fairness  to  the  agents  concerned 
as  well  as  our  fraud  prevention  program: 

1.  Given  the  number  of  factors  which  must  be  considered,  a  period  of  3  to  5 
minutes  is  totally  inadequate  to  do  a  thorough  job  of  taking  a  passport  applica- 
tion : 

2.  The  constant  pressure  of  applicants  in  front  of  an  agent  also  creates  barriers 
which  make  it  difficult  for  the  agent  to  detect  fraud ; 

.3.  The  physical  limitations  of  the  reception  room  are  inadequate  and  create 
at  times  a  sense  of  turmoil.  This  also  lessens  the  effectiveness  of  our  agents : 

4  From  a  fraud  point  of  view,  I  feel  it  is  necessary  to  state  that  except  for 
the  most  obvious  frauds,  it  is  totally  unfair  to  the  agents  concerned  to  hold  them 
acrnnutable  for  such  frauds  as  may  filter  through ; 

5.  Some  action  must  be  taken  to  reduce  the  pressure  on  agents  taking  applica- 
tions in  New  York  if  we  are  to  expect  an  acceptable  standard  of  fraud  detection 
in  that  Agency ; 

6.  The  "melting  pot"  population  situation  in  New  York  is  peculiarly  conducive 
to  fraud  potential. 


1.  It  seems  obvious  to  me  that  the  current  program  of  having  a  number  of 
Clerks  of  Court  and  Post  Offices  accept  applications  has  not  solved  the  counter 
problem  at  New  York  City  although  it  has  helped  to  a  certain  extent.  The 
apparent  reason  for  this  seems  to  be  that  individuals  wish  to  go  to  the  Agency 
responsible  for  issuing  the  passport  rather  than  to  a  Post  Office  or  Clerk  of 
Court  whenever  it  is  possible  to  do  so. 

2.  Since  New  York  is  the  most  important  overseas  departure  airport  in  the 
United  States,  the  Agency  has  an  exceptional  load  of  emergency  cases  which  must 
be  handled  at  the  counter. 


Despite  the  views  of  the  upper  echelon  in  the  Department  of  State  that 
increase  of  Passport  Agencies  is  a  "bureaucratic"  maneuver,  I  recommend  as 
stronglv  as  I  can,  that  we  establish  several  sub-agencies  in  the  New  York  area 
to  accept  applications.  One  obvious  area  is  in  the  so-called  Financial  Di.strict  of 
New  York.  The  other  areas  can  be  determined  by  a  review  of  counter  applications 
to  determine  the  areas  from  which  the  counter  applications  are  coming.  During 
mv  trip  to  New  York  I  tentatively  made  arrangements  to  have  counter  applica- 
tions segregated  and  sent  to  Washington  for  a  survey  to  obtain  statistics  which 
would  support  a  rational  basis  for  establishing  sub-agencies  in  New  York. 

April  24,  1973. 

To :  PPT — Miss  Frances  G.  Knight. 
From  :  PT/T.^ — William  E.  Duggan. 
Subject:  Current  procedures  used  in  the  processing  of  passport  fraud  cases. 

When  information  appearing  on  a  passport  application,  or  received  subsequent 
to  the  issuance  of  a  passport,  raises  the  possibility  tliat  a  person  has  perpetuated 
a  fraud,  the  case  is  referred  to  the  Legal  Division  of  the  Passport  Office.  An 


attorney  in  the  Legal  Division  reviews  the  entire  file  in  order  to  determine  what 
evidence  is  available  to  establish  a  prima  facie  case  of  fraud  or  what  additional 
evidence  may  be  required  to  establish  such  a  case. 

The  attorney  then  prepares  a  detailed  memorandum  outlining  the  facts 
involved  and  the  investigative  action  necessary  to  establish  a  prima  facie  case  of 
fraud.  This  memorandum  and  the  case  file  are  forwarded  to  the  Office  of  Security 
of  the  Department  of  State  which  has  investigative  jurisdiction  in  passport 
fraud  cases.  Upon  completion  of  the  requested  investigation,  the  file  is  returned 
to  the  Legal  Division  of  the  Passport  Office  along  with  whatever  evidence  and 
information  was  developed  in  the  course  of  the  investigation. 

If  the  concerned  Passport  Office  attorney  is  satisfied  that  the  investigation  has 
developed  sufficient  admissible  evidence  to  establish  a  prima  facie  case  of  pass- 
port fraud,  he  prepares  a  "Criminal  Prosecution  Summary."  The  "Summary" 
along  with  the  file,  then  is  forwarded  to  the  appropriate  U.S.  Attorney  through 
the  Office  of  Security  of  the  Department  of  State.  This  procedure  is  designed  to 
offer  the  U.S.  Attorney  with  as  much  personal  assistance  and  contact  as  possible 
with  the  Department  of  State. 

After  receipt  and,  in  due  course,  review  of  the  case,  it  is  the  responsibility 
of  the  U.S.  Attorney  to  decide  if  prosecution  should  be  initiated  or  declined.  If 
prosecution  is  declined,  the  case  is  returned  to  the  Passport  Office,  through  the 
Office  of  Security,  with  a  statement  from  the  U.S.  Attorney  giving  his  reasons 
for  not  initiating  prosecution.  If  the  U.S.  Attorney  accepts  the  case  for  prosecu- 
tion, he  initiates  the  necessary  procedures  to  bring  the  case  to  trial. 

Cases  pending  by  investigation  as  of  April  2^,  WIS 

Cases  opened  in  1973 165 

Cases  opened  prior  to  January  1,  1973 221 

Cases  opened  prior  to  January  1,  1972 78 

Cases  opened  prior  to  January  1,  1971 20 

Cases  opened  prior  to  January  1,  1970 ■    17 

Total  cases  pending 501 

Samples  of  Fraudulent  Documents  op  Identification  Obtained  and  Used  by 
Members  of  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love 

1.  counterfeit  birth  certificates 

[Note :  The  four  birth  certificates  that  follow  are  all  counterfeit.  As  will  be 
seen  by  the  chart  on  page  83,  fraudulent  Brotherhood  birth  certificates  were 
more  or  less  evenly  divided  between  outright  counterfeits  and  valid  birth  cer- 
tificates fraudulently  obtained  by  individuals  professing  to  be  the  persons  de- 
scribed in  the  certificates.  Applicants  for  such  valid  but  fraudulent  certificates 
almost  invariably  employ  the  technique  of  applying  for  a  birth  certificate  of  a 
deceased  person  whose  age,  if  alive,  would  approximate  their  own.  The  Passport 
Office  felt  it  would  be  inappropriate  to  provide  samples  of  such  birth  certificates 
for  reproduction,  out  of  consideration  for  the  feelings  of  surviving  family 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  both  of  the  birth  certificates  issued  to  "Ruth  Ellen 
Simms,"  one  in  Seattle,  Washington  and  the  other  in  Newark,  New  Jersey,  were 
complete  counterfeits  (see  page  101). 

As  examples  of  how  widespread  the  printing  of  counterfeit  birth  certificates 
is,  we  reproduce  on  page  98  copies  of  counterfeit  certificates  of  birth  dupli- 
cating the  certificates  issued  by  the  city  of  Elizabeth,  New  Jersey  and  by  the 
Tennessee  Department  of  Public  Health.  The  Tennessee  certificate  is  accom- 
panied by  an  investigative  report  to  the  Special  Agent  In  Charge,  Los  Angeles, 
describing  the  seizure  of  certificates  and  of  the  counterfeiting  ring  involved,  by 
the  Dallas  Police  Department.] 

August  28, 1972. 
Chief.  Division  of  Investigations 
SAC — Los  Angeles 
Counterfeit  birth  certificates 

Sgt.  J.  W.  Heard,  General  Assignments  Unit,  Dallas  Police  Department  was 
interviewed  on  8/22/72  by  S/A  E.  A.  Vina.  Source  stated  that  his  office  appre- 
hended three  individuals  in  a  counterfeiting  operation.  Seized  at  that  time  was 
23-538 — 73 8 


a  quantity  of  counterfeit  Tennessee  Birth  Certificates  wliich  were  alleged  to 
command  a  price  of  $150.00  apiece  on  the  market.  According  to  Source,  the  error 
discovered  on  these  certificates  (a  Xerox  copy  is  attached)  is  the  printed  legend 
on  the  left  border  reading  "By  Courtesy  of  Tennessee  Department  of  Public 
Health.  This  Reproduction  Should  Be  Carefully  Preserved."  Also  the  letter  "R" 
in  "Civil  District"  is  blurred. 

A  sidelight  on  this  matter  is  that  Heard  stated  that  the  three  apprehended 
■are  all  homosexual. 

This  information  is  forwarded  to  you  for  the  possible  information  of  the 
Passport  Office. 

T      w 








































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Bureau  of  Vitai-  Statistics 




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M<}i    n(i7}ie  of- —. 

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LOCAL  REGTSTRAR   S  STATE  CFOMlO  BIRTM    NO        4    '7    fi    '^ 

NUMBER      O    ^  Tt  CCLUMBU5    OHIO  OATt    PlECElVEoi  ""^ /— ^2, 

.l^rATnK'ilu                 JOHN 

M;j.:.t                                                     till 

PETER                        LANE 

**a  1  e         >(  S'"*''  2  ■'■♦^n  C  '■'"pi"  ;  n  ur*-"^"nj°  T^^vj 


Stark                                   1 

''clt^lB                     Stark^" 

LOCATION       Canton 

ji          C.  C'TY,  TOWN  llf  oiitijjf  corpctitc  limiti.  JO  ipccify) 

II          locATroN      Canton 

C.   HOSPITAL  ill'no:  in  r.oiri^Jlfi  .n^!llLCu,n.  siveitiMi  J 

WHERE  Bo«N     Canton  ComfTunitv 

JJrCil)   !}           D     STftCET  ADDRESS    RURAL  ROUTE    ETC. 

7.    FATHER  OF  CHILD               f.r.:                  M.JJIc                 Lj> 


a.     MOTHER    OF   CHILD                f.I.t                    M.JJJc                     L.  .1 

B.    COLOR    OR    RACE 


Henry     Pau  I Lane 


(Maulc.n  rumcl 

D.  BIRTHPLACE  iSt»fc  uf  FciciKi  Cuumry) 


-Ana   -_-_-_-  Ml  I  lor 

;     C     PRESENT  AGE 


-i:onstrucll  an 

.  Wh  I  te ^ I 

Ca.l  |-f.orjiJa_ 


I  HEREBY  Ct'PTiry   that   tro  forcyoing  copy  kcs  been  conpiired 
by  r.ic  v/ith   the  original   docunter.t  and  is  a    true,    full   and 
correct  copy  of   the  original   certificate  as   the  same  appears 
on   file  in    the   vital   statistics  section  Of  the  Ohio  State 
Department  of  Health  and  in  my  official   care  and  custody, 












rnxmrnz  u  -mm 


Chis  Certines  that ionj^^iAmRjiAmiL 


AtIiRI  _■__. -l-M.    H0yE!1B"R  24 

3n  Witness  iUhcrtofTHE 

19  _« 

TO  BE  h)£RETO  A^FI/E^: 

►E.NT  OP  ».OW»lTAL 

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s,    Comm.    Hosp. 


r  OfltfitI  Ns. 


lEGlSTEnno  NO- 







""^''  Female 


M.T£,      Yq5 




Sql.     ! 


AND  \  '"OdOtn 

(  Of  u:iUH 

"bIrth'  Nov. 






699   i 


raSc      Wh  I  te 


rd  David  Madoc>i_ 

FULL                                   MOTHER 


NAME           Laura  Ann  Vomer 

5.   Oakwood 

p  o  ADDnrss 


age  at  last 


coi  on 

""Sc        Wh  1  te 





OinTHPLACE                                                                                                                         DIRTHPLACE 

El   Paso, Texas                                      Jon lln. Missouri 


Fl reman 


Numbcl  ofchilj  oF  this  mo(Ii< 

.(n|»ci„in .YO.^jn 



I  hereby  certify  ihil  I  >tic,iJidil,cl>"t.filM,cl.ilJ..nJ.lijl  il  occuiirJ  on_J\)  Pv   •       /s'^    ^    "I  '   "    '  '''^'^'^  •i'7/2-SAm. 

}  tr  miJu ,r,.  Itc  III  t^lbtr.  mill: r.  /,,,«.  ^  (S.grudlle) T^.V}  _  i^l^^^n^  ^/„  ,_^ , 

\l„M,:iu..lbnUmjkillhnli.rn.  f  (I        W  A       J"A- 

'. .  19_ 





1100  Public  Safety  Building,  ■Sealtlo  4,  Washmoion 


£L"k"  6  2  5       ~"V!?;""   i732i  CERTIFICATE  OF  LIVE  BIRTH  ""n^       3025 

TrZHTrcirTri7bT"7TA3t  ,  i<.  middll  NAvt  I  ic.  LASi  iiAM£ 

RUTH :     ELLE?; '    SIMMS 

ii.  FLACt  OF  tilKlM— ci:i  cs  I0»»  (.f  tuii.ct  u.its.  .em  KM",  a-h  ..■i  »  ■.UJiii  ic.)  I  ti.  COU N  r  Y 

Seattle I        Kine 

Sc  t'JLL  f:A'-'iL"Ar.D  AD0fiE55  OF  H0SFJ7AL  OK  ItiST  ITUtlOS— (i.  .at  i«  ws^irii  o«  i.i..rui.OfHivt  ii«im3»»lis  o«  t'  .iio'.) 

University  of  '-JashinRton  Hospital 

365 J.   East   65th   Street I       King 

t:.  CUV  OR  TCV.'.N  (irouiji£tc:*i«jtuTtLi-:Tj,  aR.u(»uRAI.M3ii»iito.-i.ti-LST  ro*-)  I  Cp.  SiATt 

Seattle : , I      Washington 

VllAiDtiN  NAME  CF  .•.■OrntK-fiBirmar  ;•.  Mtrru  roNt  I  7.  ►«»!:  ,  S.  COLOK  OH  KACLOF  KOTn-.h 

Susan ;  Kav !   Jones I   White 

S.  A&£OFT;oiH£.F.  uir..[c*i«:!t..r«i  I   :1).  DIP.Trl^LACE  o.  f»ii',.  c>,<:..)  j  1!.  WAILiriG  ADDRESS  OF  MOTHER  (,r  o,.-rc=i«n«-  «:;oo!ii 

23    YFiasI   For tland,   Orepon  I SAME 

U..  NAME  Or  FAIr.E.S-.lBST  i.ak£  ,  III.  fAaZLZ  kAH£  il2t.  HSINAKd  1  IJ.  COEOKOS  RAi,t.  OF  FAlhi-R 

Anthony Lie^^t ■    Sim-ns I      White 

rTAGEOf  FATHr;5c<''ii«!cFMii;»i»)|  15.  BISrhPLACE  <ii.ii  e»  .c.c:;i  cs^T-.i  I  16..  UiUAL  OCCUPATION  I  16i.  Kmo  OF  ausi«5S0R  INIVJSTHY 

9Q    Yf<.-.l   Tr-:ron^-   Wanhinrton      I     Ppvcbolor-' t    Tn<^tJ      II.    ofWn?;h. 

T"^z.\'ii7-:\^-::-: "-■'■'- "''•'-\S-'^l  I   u.  of  w.  hoso. 

I   teRcBY   CERTIFY,    That  l^e  lorccomg  13  a  true,  full  end  correct  copy  of  Iho 

orlflinsl  OLr|,f,c~'o  cl  Birlh  en  In  (Iks  olfice. 



it.lJcK.ns  Couni,  Rt«,.l(.r^/ 

!■'.   Kll  ' 

!"!' !i    r'/'         ''V'  ^      ';  'I'     •  .  •  -    f 

g'y\M|?^jy  f.    ^     V  ■■'U-«^^'H.H.^.....;'ra:M^^F..H  -J 

\J\\  DL'    ;>    lo    C.<-l:f.j     InMtl.iirolWng;-,  co-rrc-ly.opcdf, 


g      .^ 


-Tcorri  of  B''-:h  In  uny  'r'f'cr.  _  .-'> 

L-.'    rjl  CO    NOT   ACCEPT   THIS  Ct-K  I  ll-tt-Al  t  urvL.t»3    iit-.   ,i/-.^t,y  ..EAU  OF  TrfIS  OU,<fZ  \U     S      r     .     _  .y    .t       ■    .  ^^, 

^  qi     ■  Kuth  Ellen  Siirjas      |Feir.?.le  j  _    nxwat,-,^,  ,-i  j L^^f-i-i-^l.-  Edward  Simms  Donna  Ellen  McCoy 

%   Hi   111  Wi!:irminil;iTrof.    I  s^voi  harcuVo  :of  my  )xr,J  od  it!;..,a  tU  iool  oi  B.roa.  of  Vitol  S'o:;ii;cs.  i^.-r^r^.  N^w  Jo-so/,  Ii;:   •; 

^.  jl    ll,;._llth.doy  of  Februar:^,  ^.  d,  ,9.72_  .^  ^  .;  ;.;     .^_^                                         A^Haskm  |  ^^ 

?;■                   -^                                  M„  d.iio  will  .ippri.,-  u.con  Ih.)  "Dslo  Filod"  llr.o  telcw  unlo-.s  Ino  b.rih  wo:  ii-^orii  ,r;,    -i 

-    ^^                                   Uler  tVior,  or.s  y.lsriiltr;!  occurred.              '        «  ;>■;    ■]. 

Ir^              '^■Jy<'^     ^;^  ;::...;;.:....■.■>';.•;;  ;i   Filed  within_20  days  of  birth  .,,45  %l 

'"   '                                           '                •■  •    "'.'■"      *...  <■..■.'...... '....(  ;[•;  v 

||__/____:_^:-;  ■;.;;;; 


2.  Other  counterfeit  identification  documents : 

Counterfeit  Opebatob's  License 

STATE  OF  OHIO  •   DEPT.  OF  HIGHWAY  SAFETY  ,  r%^''     A      f^     O 

OPERATOR'S  LICENSE  NO      j  fj  ^;     I     4  5  O 


SHOULD    DC.   CAKHltU    WHILt    UKIVinu  ' j r-— 

EXPIRES     ON     LICENSEE'S     BIRTHDAY     IN     isj    7U    [V°g    «         -         -  S.  S.  NO.     853-71-8441 


ADDRESS  173  S,    Clark   Aveo 

P.O.     .Mcron  OHIO    351 

HATE    1       MO- 






CCLOR    Hi|R 


BIRTH     11 









.^0  3-26-71 



Blank  Counteefeit  Selective  Service  Form 



This  is  to  certify  that 

(First  name)  (Middle  mdial)  (Lasi  name) 

Selective  Service  No. 

is  classified  in  Qass_ 


by  Local  Board  unless  otherwise 

checked  below: 

n  by  Appeal  Board 

vote  of to 

D  by  President 


(Date  of  mailing) 

(Member.  Execjtiv?  Secrctir,,.  or  clerti  of 
local  board) 

(Registrant's  signature) 

SSS  Form  110  (Rev.  5-25-67) 
(Previous  printings  arc  obsolete) 
(Approval  noc  required) 

The  law  requires  you  to  have  this 
Notice  in  addition  to  your  Registration 
Cerci6cate,  in  your  personal  possession 
at  all  times  and  co  surrender  it  upon 
entering  active  duty  in  the  Armed 

Tht  law  requires  you  to  notify  your 
local  board  in  wtitine  within  10  days 
after  it  occurs,  (I)  of  every  change  m 
your  address,  physical  condition  and 
occupitiorul  (including  student),  man- 
cal.  family,  dependency  and  mditary 
sutus,  and  (2)  of  any  other  ract  which 
might  change   your  cUssinc.ition. 

Any  person  v.ho  alrt-rs,  torges,  know- 
ingly destroys,  knowingly  mutilates  or 
in  any  manner  chances  this  certmcate  or 
who,  for  the  purpose  ot  false  idcntihca- 
tion  or  teptescatation.  has  in  his  posscs_- 
sion  a  certihcate  of  another  or  who 
delivers  his  ctrtiiicate  to  another  to  be 
used  for  such  purpose,  may  be  fined  not 
to  exceed  ^10,000  or  imprisoned  tor  not 
more  dian  5  years,  or  both. 

_ — Lq^- — 

*o/-^>  7 





Dlivtl  llCENSE  NVIMSei 

v\l^K><^   '■^• 

/•••;•■■  : r;:  '■■^'■'yr- 

if;^'-   •      STATE   OF   NEW   JERSEY' 

(v^v^^  'division  of  motor  vehicles 

■\V\                DRIVER   LICENSE 


1;,/;,.    ■■-.   •'■  •>•,,.- 

•  .'    ■ 



k^csw.  ..-;>.  ■ 


•■  ..'. 

:;^^'.M^^^,<-•''V■v.  7.,:....  >'.r.-''..:.:'  .;:■■••..  . 






j  n,   j  iKKts 










j      •     HJ:&>lI 

1/   ,»MT 


HERE    X. 

lS-147    A  (82/70)  CiBJCTOH 

f  ~         ~^'  DRIvm   llCtMSE    NUMBER 




-.If  the  information  on  the  aftoched  license  i$  in- 
cprrect  or  should  change,  please  print  the  correct 
data  on/y  below  ond  moil  to  the  N.  J.  Division  of 
Motor  Vehicles. 

New    NAME 



DATE  Of    t.KIH 

MONin                                 TfX 




H                   »JCMCS 



IS  U7  6  (R2/65) 


[From  the  Washington  Post,  May  3, 1973] 
Troopeb,  Militant  Die  in    N.J.  Clash 

East  Brunswick,  N.J.,  May  2:  A  state  trooper  was  killed  and  another 
wounded  in  a  pre-dawn  shooting  on  the  New  Jersey  Turnpike  today  after  they 
stopped  a  white  Pontiac  carrying  three  persons,  including  a  woman  sought  in 
the  slaying  of  two  New  York  City  policemen,  police  said. 

The  woman,  identified  as  a  member  of  the  Black  Liberation  Army,  was  wounded 
and  a  male  companion  shot  to  death.  He  was  identified  as  Zayd  Malik  Shakur 
former  deputy  prime  minister  of  the  Black  Panther  Party. 

The  third  occupant  of  the  car  fled  on  foot  in  the  direction  of  nearby  Milltown. 

State  Police  Superintendent  David  B.  Kelly  said  the  shooting  began  after 
trooper  James  M.  Harper,  stopped  the  auto  for  "speeding  slightly."  Before  ap- 
proaching the  car,  Harper  radioed  for  a  backup  patrol  car. 

Trooper  Werner  Foerster  arrived,  and  the  two  troopers  approached  the  stopped 
auto.  Foerster  questioned  a  man  and  a  woman  who  were  passengers  in  the  ear, 
while  Harper  talked  with  the  driver  at  a  patrol  car,  authorities  said. 

Kelley  said  there  was  a  discrepancy  in  the  driver's  license  and  registration. 

He  said  the  woman,  later  identified  by  fingerprints  as  Joanne  Deborah  Chesi- 
mard,  25,  pulled  a  gun  and  fired  at  Foerster.  The  troopers  and  the  two  other  men 
pulled  guns  and  about  30  rounds  were  fired,  he  said. 

"As  we  put  it  together,  the  girl  fired  from  within  the  car.  Harper  retreated, 
there  was  a  fireflght  and  all  people  involved  were  shooting,"  Kelly  said. 

Harper,  wounded  in  the  shoulder,  managed  to  walk  300  yards  to  the  Turnpike 
Administration  building  to  summon  help.  Other  troopers  arrived  and  found 
Trooper  Foerster  dead  of  gunshot  wounds. 

The  auto  was  gone.  Shortly  after  that,  Trooper  Robert  Palentehar  spotted 
the  car  five  miles  to  the  south,  and  saw  a  man  fleeing  into  the  woods. 

Palentoher  ordered  him  to  halt  and  opened  fire  when  the  command  went  un- 
heeded. The  man,  later  identified  as  the  driver  of  the  car,  disappeared  into  the 

The  trooper  found  the  wounded  Miss  Chesimard  at  the  car.  The  other  pas- 
senger, identified  as  James  Costan,  32,  of  New  York  City,  was  dead  of  bullet 
wounds,  Kelly  said. 

Miss  Chesimard  was  listed  in  satisfactory  condition  under  guard  at  Middlesex 
General  Hospital  in  New  Brunswick. 

(She  was  recently  named  by  former  New  York  City  Police  Commissioner 
Patrick  V.  Murphy  as  one  of  six  persons  being  sought  for  questioning  in  a  series 
of  attacks  on  policemen  believed  to  have  been  carried  out  by  members  of  the 
black  militant  organization.  The  two  policemen  who  were  killed  were  Gregory 
Foster  and  Rocco  Laurie,  shot  on  New  York's  Lower  East  side  in  January  1972.) 

Kelley  said  four  handguns  were  found  near  the  scene  of  the  turnpike  shootout. 
He  also  said  troopers  found  a  "whole  carload  of  false  identification,"  including 
passports,  birth  certificates  and  Social  Security  and  credit  cards. 

[From  the  Washington  Star-News,  Sept.  3, 1973] 
Man  on  Most  "Wanted  List  Captured  in  New  Orleans 

New  Orleans  :  Herman  Bell,  25,  one  of  the  FBI's  10  most  wanted  fugitives, 
has  been  captured  on  a  New  Orleans  street. 

Bell,  wanted  in  the  killing  of  two  New  York  City  policemen,  offered  no  resist- 
ance when  arrested  yesterday. 

Bell  went  before  a  U.S.  magistrate  in  New  Orleans  and  was  put  under  a 
$500,000  bond. 

The  FBI  said  Bell  had  been  sought  in  connection  with  the  killing  of  the  two 
police  officers  on  May  21,  1971,  and  also  with  the  robbery  of  a  branch  of  the  Bank 
of  America  in  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  on  Sept.  20, 1971. 

Bell  was  arrested  by  FBI  agents,  New  Orleans  police  and  New  York  City  police 

TT.S.  Magistrate  Morey  Sear  set  a  Sept.  12  date  for  a  removal  hearing  at 
which  time  Bell  could  be  sent  back  to  New  York  for  trial. 

Robert  Tanenbaum,  an  assistant  district  attorney  from  Manhattan,  said  he 
anticipated  that  extradition  proceedings  would  be  started  in  state  court  here 


Both  Tanenbaum  and  U.S.  Atty.  Gerald  Gallinghouse  of  New  Orleans  asked 
that  Bell  be  held  without  bond.  Gallinghouse  cited  the  "vicious  crimes"  involved 
and  said  Bell  was  extremely  dangerous. 

Sear  ruled  that  Bell  was  indigent  and  appointed  New  Orleans  attorney  Martin 
E.  Feldman  to  represent  him. 

At  Bell's  apartment  police  said  they  confiscated  $3,800  in  cash,  two  .12-gauge 
shotguns,  a  .308  lever-action  rifle  with  a  telescopic  sight,  a  .9-milimeter  auto- 
matic pistol  and  a  .38-caliber  revolver.  Police  said  one  of  the  shotguns  was  a 
sawed-off,  slide  action  type. 

Police  said  they  also  seized  several  blank  birth  certificates,  a  marijuana 
plant,  ammunition,  a  machete,  medical  supplies  such  as  bandages  and  hyper- 
dermics.  and  knives. 

Bell  said  that  he  had  not  worked  in  the  past  six  months,  but  had  saved  money. 
He  gave  a  New  Orleans  address  as  his  most  recent  residence  and  several  San 
Francisco  addresses. 

Bell  said  his  only  prior  conviction  was  second-degree  robbery  in  Oakland, 
Calif.  He  said  he  had  attended  Oakland  College  there  for  a  time. 

Tanenbaum  said  he  and  three  New  York  City  detectives  had  been  in  New 
Orleans  since  Thursday  after  receiving  information  a  week  ago  that  Bell  was 
in  the  city. 

Bell's  wife  was  also  booked  by  the  New  Orleans  police  on  charges  of  harbor- 
ing a  fugitive  and  possession  of  stolen  property.  Their  children,  Jonas  Bell,  2%, 
and  Richard  Keith  Hanna,  a  stepson,  5,  were  placed  in  the  care  of  juvenile 

[From  the  Miami  News,  Dec.  22,  1971] 

11  Arrested  in  Phony-ID  Raids  in  Dade 

(By  William  Tucker) 

Metro  officers  roimded  up  11  persons,  including  a  recent  candidate  for  Hia- 
leah  mayor,  in  synchronized  raids  early  today  tied  in  with  the  printing  of  thou- 
sands of  bogus  draft  cards  and  driver's  licenses. 

Narcotics,  burglary  and  robbery  also  were  involved  in  the  three-month  inves- 
tigation, Metro  police  said. 

The  crackdown  focused  on  the  Centur  Inc.  printing  firm  at  401  NW  1st  Ct. 
which  was  first  raided  on  Dec.  1.  Then,  police  seized  1,500  counterfeit  voter  regis- 
tration cards  and  2,000  counterfeit  selective  service  cards,  they  said. 

Raided  again  today,  the  firm  was  found  back  in  operation,  agents  said,  Centur 
Printing  is  not  to  be  confused  with  the  Center  Printing  Co.  Inc.,  at  1044  NW  54th 
St.,  a  respected  business  here  since  1944. 

Among  those  arrested  was  Hialeah  Attorney  Alden  Sanford  Tarte,  45,  who 
finished  last  in  a  field  of  six  in  the  recent  Hialeah  election  for  mayor. 

Tarte,  of  1015  W.  51st  PI.,  Hialeah,  was  charged  with  conspiring  with  the 
alleged  operator  of  the  printing  firm,  Robert  Verne  Schaffer,  to  burglarize 
the  home  of  a  former  member  of  the  firm  to  obtain  corporate  records.  Tarte  also 
was  charged  with  one  count  of  robbery  in  connection  with  the  same  incident. 

Ralph  Page,  Metro  public  information  spokesman,  said  the  complex  investiga- 
tion started  Oct.  6  when  North  District  vice  squad  detectives  tried  to  make  a 
cocaine  buy  from  a  suspect.  Instead,  the  suspect  offered  to  sell  them  a  set  of 
stolen  identification  papers  including  a  draft  card,  driver's  license  social  securi- 
ty card  and  travelers  checks. 

From  that  point.  Page  said,  the  investigation  led  through  "an  entangled  web 
of  stolen  property,  narcotics  and  counterfeiting." 

Informed  counterfeit  as  well  as  stolen  IDs  were  available,  the  xmdercover 
agents  ordered  and  paid  for  10  draft  cards,  10  notice  of  classification  cards,  10 
blank  Florida  driver's  licenses,  and  10  auto  registration  forms,  all  counterfeit. 
The  Highway  Patrol  called  them  the  best  job  of  counterfeiting  licenses  it  had  ever 

The  undercover  probe  also  bought  up  a  number  of  business  firm  checks  reported 
stolen  in  various  burglaries. 

At  one  point  in  the  undercover  work,  they  reported,  they  saw  a  suitcase  "con- 
taining at  least  a  half -million  dollars  worth  of  stolen  checks." 

As  police  moved  into  the  ring,  the  undercover  men  obtained  the  names  of  vari- 
ous salesmen  and  printers.  They  bought  $2,000  worth  of  narcotics  and  pretended 
to  fence  $20,000  worth  of  jewels  and  other  stolen  goods. 


With  enough  evidence  to  raid  the  printing  firm,  agents  obtained  a  federal 
search  warrant  from  the  FBI  because  bogus  draft  cards  were  involved. 

In  the  Dec.  1  raid  with  that  warrant,  agents  picked  up  a  number  of  blank 
driver's  licenses  as  well  as  hundreds  of  draft  cards  and  voter  cards  allegedly 
printed  right  at  the  plant.  Photo-engraving  negatives  for  the  printing  also  were 

In  the  meantime,  agents  heard  about  the  burglary  of  the  home  of  James  Mil- 
gram  at  525  NW  73rd  Ave.,  on  Nov.  6  which  turned  into  a  robbery  when  the 
Milgrams  came  home  to  find  the  intruders. 

Page  said  that  Milgram  formerly  was  associated  with  Schaffer  in  the  Centur 
firm  and  the  purpose  of  the  breakin  was  to  obtain  records.  The  various  investiga- 
tions were  now  "dovetailed."  Page  said. 

For  today's  raids,  the  agents  obtained  warrants  to  arrest  11  individuals  and 
to  search  the  house  of  the  alleged  chief  salesman,  Walter  O.  (Buddy)  Bowers, 
and  the  Centur  plant  for  the  second  time. 

At  Bowers'  home,  agents  said  they  found  two  stolen  checks  worth  $11,000.  They 
were  issued  by  the  William  Lehman  automobile  firm. 

They  kicked  in  the  door  at  Centur  Printing  and  found  new  photoengraving 
negatives  for  draft  cards,  driver's  licenses,  birth  certificates  and  voter  cards. 
They  also  found  three  camera  lenses  reported  stolen  in  the  Milgram  burglary. 

Schaffer,  33,  of  4315  W  2nd  Ave.,  a  photographer  by  trade  was  charged  with 
one  count  of  possession  of  a  counterfeit  driver's  license ;  one  count  of  possessing 
counterfeiting  plates  for  such  licenses ;  one  count  of  forgery,  one  count  of 
robbery,  one  count  of  burglary,  one  count  of  conspiracy  to  commit  burglary,  and 
one  count   of  buying,  receiving  and  concealing  stolen  property. 

Bowers,  28.  of  18911  NW  39th  Ct.,  was  charged  with  five  counts  of  forgery  and 
two  counts  of  buying,  receiving  and  concealing  stolen  property. 

Others  arrested,  all  in  connection  with  the  same  investigation,  and  the  charges 
against  them,  were : 

Michael  Plolland,  34,  of  6400  W.  Okeechobee  Rd.,  Hialeah,  one  count  of 

Robert  Lewis  Daniels,  33,  of  206  SW  29th  PI.,  Fort  Lauderdale,  breaking  and 
entering  with  intent  to  commit  grand  larceny. 

Carl  Edward  Purvis,  23.  390  Fisherman  St.,  Opalocka,  two  counts  sale  of 
mari.iuana,  two  counts  possession  of  marijuana,  one  count  of  breaking  and 
entering  with  intent  to  commit  grand  larceny. 

Tiffany  Urguarte,  25,  a  woman,  same  address  as  Bowers,  one  count  of  pos- 
session of  narcotics. 

Anota  Mara  Lombard.  25.  18820  NW  44th  Ave.,  one  count  possession  of 
marijuana,  two  counts  of  possession  of  the  drug  THC,  one  count  possession  of 
hashish,  one  count  of  possession  of  central  nervous  system  stimulant,  one  count  of 
contribnting  to  the  delinquency  of  her  baby,  whose  diaper  pail  contained 

Dana  Gene  Lombard,  23,  her  husband,  same  address,  two  counts  possession 
of  marijuana,  one  count  possession  of  hashish,  two  counts  possession  of  THC, 
one  count  sale  of  THC.  one  count  of  contributing  to  the  delinquency  of  a  minor. 

Joe  Smith,  29,  420  Seaman  St.,  Opa-locka,  two  counts  ))reaking  and  entering. 

Jacob  Decker,  34,  of  15401  NW  32nd  Ave.,  one  count  of  armed  robbery,  one 
count  of  buying,  concealing  and  receiving  stolen  goods. 

All  the  arrests  were  made  between  1 :  30  and  2  a.m.  today  by  teams  totaling 
35  to  40  men.  Several  Hialeah  officers  joined  the  raids  in  their  jurisdiction. 

[From  the  Washington  Star,  Jan.  9, 1972] 

Slating  of  Informer  Linked  to  Latin  Passports  Fraud 

(By  Jeremiah  O'Leary) 

When  two  gunmen  pumped  three  .45-caliber  bullets  into  "Chocolito"  in  a  West 
Side  New  York  hotel  room  four  days  before  Christmas,  oflScials  could  only  .specu- 
late on  whether  the  murder  was  an  act  of  revenge  by  the  Caribbean  underworld. 

Whatever  it  was,  the  slaying  took  place  just  eight  days  after  State  Depart- 
ment security  agents  broke  up  a  fraudulent  passport  ring  that  had  brought 
scores  of  illegal  aliens  into  the  United  States.  "Chocolito"  (Little  Chocolate), 
whose  real  name  was  Carlos  Ramon  Batista-Castro,  was  an  ex-Dominican  police- 


man  who  informed  for  a  variety  of  U.S.  law  enforcement  agencies.  He  played  an 
important  role  in  the  three-year  passport  fraud  case. 

It  was  almost  an  anti-climax  when  the  mastermind  of  the  ring,  Francisco 
Familla-Tobal,  45,  like  "Chocolito"  a  Dominican  citizen,  pleaded  guilty  last  week 
in  federal  court  in  New  York  to  5  of  39  counts  against  him.  Familia  was  in  jail  in 
default  of  $20,000  bail  at  the  time  "Chocolito"  was  killed. 

The  murder  of  Batista-Castro  took  place  about  midnight  Dec.  20.  The  clerk  at 
the  Park  Plaza  Hotel  at  50  West  77th  St.  told  police  two  men  of  black-Spanish 
appearance  came  to  the  hotel  and  went  to  the  12th  floor  where  "Chocolito"  lived. 
They  left  10  minutes  later  and  nobody  heard  anything,  even  though  a  .45  makes 
a  noise  like  a  cannon. 

At  4  a.m.  on  Dec.  21,  a  Dominican  girl  named  Amelia  who  had  been  sharing 
Room  1222  with  "Chocolito"  found  his  body  on  the  floor.  There  were  bullet  holes 
in  his  head,  arm  and  back.  There  was  no  sign  of  a  struggle.  Police  said  Amelia 
was  hysterical  but  she  didn't  know  anything  either. 

Nobody  wasted  time  asking  Familia  about  the  end  of  "Chocolito."  He  was  in 
the  House  of  Detention,  and  a  man  couldn't  have  a  better  alibi  than  that. 

If  "Chocolito"  was  slain  crudely,  there  was  nothing  crude  about  the  case  in 
which  he  played  such  a  key  part  as  a  man  who  knew  where  to  find  Dominicans 
either  in  Santo  Domingo  or  New  York.  Security  agents  say  the  ring  was  able  to 
slip  at  least  100  illegal  aliens  into  the  country  before  the  case  was  broken. 

The  loopholes  in  the  system  of  obtaining  U.S.  passports  have  now  been  closed 
and  the  technique  will  no  longer  work,  ofiicials  said.  This  is  how  it  operated  for 
three  years : 

To  obtain  a  fraudulent  passport,  Familia  had  to  know  the  name,  birthday  and 
birthplace  of  a  Puerto  Riean  or  other  American  with  a  Spanish  name.  He  used 
to  hang  around  the  Hotel  Victoria  and  other  places  in  New  York  where  Spanish- 
speakers  can  be  found  and  pretend  to  be  a  reader  of  horoscopes. 

For  example,  he  would  learn  that  Juan  Miranda  Torres  (an  invented  name), 
an  American  citizen,  was  born  on  April  22,  1930,  in  Caguas,  Puerto  Rico.  Familia 
or  others  in  his  ring  would  find  a  Dominican  "customer"  of  about  that  age.  The 
customer  had  to  pay  his  .$1.50  to  get  the  o])eration  started  and  subsequently  up 
to  .'?1,000  to  complete  it. 

The  customer  also  had  to  furnish  him  with  passport-sized  photos.  Familia 
collected  these  between  New  York.  Santo  Domingo,  Haiti  and  Puerto  Rico. 
Back  in  New  York,  he  would  write  to  Puerto  Rico  under  Juan  Miranda  Torres 
name  and  say  that  he  had  lost  his  birth  certificate  and  needed  another  one. 
Puerto  Rioan  authorities  have  taken  steps  to  see  that  this  kind  of  request  is 
no  longer  filled  automatically,  but  for  three  years  it  worked. 

Then  Familia  would  find  look-alike  for  the  photo  of  the  Dominican  client,  and 
the  look-alike  would  use  the  birth  certificate  to  obtain  some  other  form  of  identi- 
fication under  Miranda  Torres  name,  such  as  a  New  York  driver's  license. 

Having  obtained  the  fraudulent  U.S.  passport,  Familia  would  go  to  the  Do- 
minican Republic  and  have  his  client  obtain  a  legitimate  Dominican  passport 
under  his  real  name.  Familia  and  his  client  would  then  travel  to  Port  an  Prince, 

The  reason  for  this  move,  officials  speculate,  was  so  Familia  would  violate 
no  Dominician  laws.  In  Haiti,  he  would  receive  the  rest  of  the  money  from  the 
client  and  hand  the  client  the  U.S.  passport.  The  last  step  was  to  put  the  client — 
now  known  as  Juan  Miranda  Torres — on  the  next  plane  for  the  United  States. 

The  frauds  began  to  be  suspected  by  consular  employees  at  the  U.S.  Embassy  in 
Santo  Domingo  four  years  ago.  More  definite  information  involving  Familia  was 
obtained,  probably  with  the  help  of  "Chocolito."  and  he  was  arrested  by  Dominican 
officials  at  the  request  of  the  ITnited  States  in  December  1970.  But  by  the  time  a 
grand  jury  of  the  U.S.  District  Court  for  Southern  New  York  indicted  Familia  on 
three  counts  of  passport  fraud,  Familia  had  trickled  out  of  Dominican  custody 
and  disappeared. 

He  was  finally  arrested  Dec.  13  in  New  York  City.  He  appeared  before  .Judge 
Edward  C.  McLean  the  next  day  and  bail  was  set  at  $20,000.  Familia  could  not 
make  the  bail. 

Officials  Indicated  agreement  was  reached  between  the  U.S.  attorney  and 
counsel  for  Familia  for  the  prisoner  to  plead  guilty  to  five  of  the  counts.  The 
others  will  he  dropped. 

The  penalty  for  passport  fraud  is  five  years  or  $2,000.  FamiUa's  sentence  will 
depend  on  the  probation  report  and  the  disposition  of  the  court. 

As  for  "Chocolito,"  the  detective  handling  the  case  said  he  had  no  leads  last 
week.  It  would  come  as  a  surprise  to  the  Caribbean  underworld  if  the  murder  is 
ever  solved. 


[From  the  Chicago  Sun-Times,  Apr.  20,  1972] 

Thbee  Aeeested  in  Breakup  of  Fake  Dfiv  er  License  Ring 

(By  Art  Petacque) 

A  five-month  investigation  has  resulted  in  the  arrest  of  three  men  and  the 
breakup  of  a  ring  geared  for  widespread  sale  of  fraudulent  driver's  licenses,  the 
Illinois  secretary  of  state's  office  disclosed  Wednesday. 

Asst.  Sec.  of  State  Edmund  J.  Kucharski  also  revealed  that  a  warrant  has  been 
issued  for  a  fourth  suspect  in  the  case,  a  man  believed  to  have  fled  to  Canada. 

Kucharski  said  that  almost  200  stolen  blank  drivers'  license  cards — the  type 
carried  by  drivers  in  wallets  or  purse.s — have  been  recovered  as  a  result  of  the 
investigation,  which  involved  several  undercover  agents  and  informants  from 
Cook  Coun*^y  .Tail. 

Tliose  avested  ^-o  far  were  identified  as  Kenneth  Fomianek,  32,  of  309  S.  Oak- 
wood.  Willow  Springs,  apparently  the  ringleader,  investigators  said ;  Daniel  Otto, 
26,  who  gave  various  addresses,  and  Fred  Nigro,  29.  of  14230  S.  Palmer.  Posen, 
The  man  being  sought  was  identified  as  Daniel  Nelson,  29,  of  4611  N.  Hermitage. 

Kucharski  said  the  investigation  began  last  Dec.  28,  when  Rafael  Garcia,  38, 
of  1420  W.  50th,  a  restaurant  owner,  was  stopped  for  a  minor  traffic  offense. 

He  showed  a  driver's  license  on  which  his  name  apparently  had  been  typed— 
a  variation  from  the  usual  computer-printout  cards  issued  to  Illinois  motorists, 
Kucharski  said. 


A  check  proved  the  license  to  be  fraudulent,  investigators  said.  The  investi- 
gators learned  further  that  Garcia's  own  license  had  been  revoked.  They  said 
he  told  of  buying  the  fradulent  license  for  $400,  but  said  he  couldn't  identify  the 

At  about  the  same  time,  a  similar  case  popped  up,  Kucharski  said.  A  man  was 
arrested  in  Benton,  111.,  for  driving  an  auto  without  state  license  plates.  His 
typev.-ritten  driver's  license  identified  him  as  Ronald  Anderson.  36,  of  4942  N. 
St.  Louis,  Chicago. 

The  man  surrendered  the  fraudulent  driver's  license  as  bond,  but  failed  to 
show  up  for  a  court  appearance. 


Investigators  couldn't  locate  Anderson  at  the  Chicago  address.  Next,  they 
checked  on  the  sales  of  hundreds  of  new  Chevrolets,  without  success. 

Finally  they  determined  that  "Anderson"  had  leased  the  auto  from  a  North- 
west Side  firm.  Further  checking  determined  that  Anderson  actually  was  Arden 
Smith,  an  AWOL  soldier  who  had  been  sentenced  to  one  year  in  County  Jail  on  a 
grand  theft  conviction. 

Smith,  interviewed  at  the  jail,  admitted  buying  a  blank  driver's  license  card  for 
$65  from  the  owner  of  a  Southwest  Side  auto  body  shop.  Riding  with  investigators, 
he  pointed  out  Formanek's  shop  at  2659  S.  Springfield  as  the  one  in  question. 


A  surveillance  of  Formanek's  shop  ensued.  He  was  arrested  as  he  drove  from 
the  shop  in  a  car  without  license  plates.  He  was  charged  with  driving  with  a 
fraudulent  driver's  license;  driving  when  his  license  was  revoked,  and  theft  of 
state  property.  The  latter  charge  related  to  the  theft  of  200  blank  license  cards 
from  a  state  supplier,  Eveready  Business  Forms  Division  of  Safeguard  Industries 
Inc.,  3159  W.  36th.  ^    . 

Kucharski  said  Otto  was  arrested  after  investigators  learned  he  was  offering 
to  sell  driver's  license  blanks  from  the  same  stolen  lot.  Investigators  posing  as 
truck  drivers  met  him  at  Montrose  and  Kedzie  with  $900  in  marked  money  and 
bought  51  blanks,  Kucharski  said.  Another  140  blanks  were  recovered  later  at 
his  residence,  according  to  the  state  official.  Otto  was  charged  with  selling 
fraudulent  licenses. 

Investigators  said  Otto  named  Formanek  as  the  source  of  the  stolen  blanks. 
Both  Formanek  and  Otto  have  prison  records,  according  to  investigators. 

The  third  man  arrested,  Nigro,  also  was  charged  with  selling  fraudulent 


Summary  of  Passport  Frauds  Committed  by  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love 


Number  and  type  of  frauds 1 

Place  application  filed 2 

Year  application  filed 8 

Frauds  detected  before  issue 4 

Source  of  passport  application  fraud  detected 5 

Fraudulent  birth  certificates  detected 5 

Single  and  multiple  violations 7 

Counterfeit  birth  certificates  detected S 

Prosecutive  action ^ 


Apr.  27. 1973     June  1, 1973     July  12, 1973        Oct.  1, 1973 

Number  of  frauds 

Type  of  frauds: 

Alteration  of  passport 

Fraudulent  use  of  passport 

ldentlfvin£  witness 

False  statement 





















Place  passport  application  filed 

Apr.  27, 1973     June  1, 1973     July  12, 1973        Oct.  1,  1973 

False  statement  violation: 

Los  Angeles 

San  Francisco... 



Post  office 

New  York 


Clerk  of  court 



Year  fraudulent  application  filed 

Apr  27,  1973     June  1,1973    July  12, 1973        Oct  1,  1973 

False  statement  violations: 

Prior  to  1969... 






























Apr  27, 1973     June  1, 1973    July  12, 1973        Oct  1, 1973 

Detected  before  issue  (1972-73) 

San  Francisco 



Los  Angeles 


Lookout  System 

New  Orleans 

























Year  detected— 



Detected  by— 













Legal  Division,  Passport  Office. -. 





Other  1                               

3  ... 


1  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  and  other  law  enforcement  agencies. 



Year  detected 




Valid  birth 







Single  violations: 

Fraudulent  applications 

Fraudulent  alteration  (photo  subslitution). 



Multiple  violations: 

4  passports  1  identity,  1  passport  2d  identity .- 

3  identities 

2  identities -- 

Identifying  witness 

3  applications  same  false  identity.. 

2  applications  same  false  identity.. 

Fraudulent  use  by  2  persons  of  passport  issued  to  another  couple. 






















27, 1973 

June  1, 1973 

July  12 


Oct.  1, 1973 





Purported  issuing  authority: 












New  York. 




Other  (less  than  2  people)                    



Table  9. — Prosecutive  Action  as  of  Octobee  1,  1973 

Referred  U.S.  Attorney 42 

Indicted   25 

Convicted 5 

Declined  :  1 — no  reason,  2 — charged  other  offense 3 

Passport  Office  Budget  Data 

It  is  a  fact  that  virtually  every  position  in  the  Passport  Office  relates  directly 
or  indirectly  to  the  public  service  rendered  to  T'.S.  citizens  in  the  field  of  passport 
issuance  and  citizenship  determination.  In  addition,  every  job  also  relates  directly 
or  indirectly  to  maintaining  the  integrity  of  the  passport  document  as  one  which 
identifies  the  citizen  to  be  the  individual  named  and  described  in  the  passport 
document.  In  our  concentration  to  maintain  passport  integrity,  the  positions  of 
passport  agent.s,  adjudicators,  file  searchers  and  reviewers,  legal  researchers  and 
attorneys,  recorders,  and  even  our  mail  clerks  are  all  related  to  an  intensive 
office-wide  fraud  alert.  In  directing  a  function  such  as  the  Passport  Office,  one 
cannot  segregate  one  phase  of  the  operation,  such  as  fraud,  from  aU  the  other 
functions.  Each  is  an  integral  part  of  the  other. 

The  following  Table  shows  the  Passport  Office  budget  requests  in  total  dollars 
from  FY  1970  through  FY  1974  inclusive : 

Fiscal  year 



1972.. -- ---- 

1973 - - 


Note:  The  above  amounts  do  not  include  pay  of  permanent  personnel  since  these  funds  are  managed  centrally  by  the 
State  Department- 

In  each  fiscal  year,  Column  (c),  the  budget  amount  submitted  to  the  Congress 
by  the  State  Department  for  the  Passport  Office,  is  less  than  the  amount  re- 
quested by  the  Passport  Office,  Column  (b) . 

Although  the  Congress  had  never  disapproved  on  the  record  any  amount  re- 
quested by  the  State  Department  for  the  Passport  Office  during  these  years, 
the  Passport  Office  is  unable  to  ascertain  what  exact  amounts  the  Congress  al- 
lowed the  operations  since  these  are  never  specified.  Unfortunately. 
Congressional  enactment  of  State  Department  appi'opriations  do  not  specifically 
earmark  funds  approved  for  the  Passport  Office. 

Mrs.  Ruth  B.  Shipley,  former  Director  of  the  Passport  Office,  stated  in  writ- 
ing that  she  had  never  received  the  full  amount  of  the  funds  allowed  tlie  Pass- 
port Office  by  the  Appropriations  Committees  since  a  ijortion  of  the  Passi)ort 
Office  allotment  was  always  withheld  by  the  Department  for  other  unsi)eeified 

There  are  many  items  which  have  caused  the  reductions  noted  in  Column  (c). 
Several  of  the  most  significant  reductions  or  deletions  of  Passport  Office  require- 
ments are  depicted  below.  One  significant  reduction  by  the  State  Department 
is  not  reflected  in  the  above  table.  This  involves  the  Passport  Office  requests 
for  permanent  personnel  authorizations.  The  Passport  Office  includes  requests 
for  increases  in  permanent  personnel  and  related  funds  in  its  annual  Budget 
Submissions,  but  as  indicated  above,  these  funds  are  retained  and  managed  cen- 
trally at  the  Departmental  level. 

Passport  office 

State  DeparN 

initial  budget 

ment  budget 



for  passport 



§2,  593, 000 



3,  034,  600 



6,  326, 100 






Fiscal  year        Type  of  request 

requested    Date  of  request 

Department  of  State  ac- 
tion    approval/denial/    Congressional    action 


1970 Annual  budget 

1970 Passport  office  sup- 
1970. Proposed    Congres- 
sional amendment 

1971 Annual  budget. 

1972 do 

1973 do... 





24    September  1958 Denied  September  1968..  Never  presented. 

24    August  1969 Denied  October  1969 Do. 

24    December  1969 Not  applicable Initiated    on    Senate 

floor  but  denied  in 
joint  committee. 

February  1970 24  provided  from  within    Never  presented. 

State  Department  re- 

29    August  1969.. Approved  September  1969  Enacted. 

for  President's  budget. 

35  August  1970 Approved    October   1970  Do. 

for  President's  budget. 

49    August  1971 20  denied  October  1971,  Reduction    by    State 

29  approved  ror  Piesi-  Department       en- 
dent's  budget.  acted. 

36  July  1972 10  denied  October  1972,  Pending     enactment 

26  approved  in  Presi-       of     reduction     by 
dent's  budget  (19  more       State    Department, 
denied   October   1973, 
leaving  7  approved) 
102    July  1972 84  denied,  18  approved..  Not  yet  presented. 

The  Department's  cuts  in  Passport  personnel  were  so  deep  and  arbitrary  that 
at  an  0MB  Hearing  on  October  5,  1973,  this  Budget  was  returned  to  the  De- 
partment for  more  practical  consideration.  Not  readily  evident  in  the  above  table 
are  the  long  and  inexplicable  delays  experienced  by  the  Passport  Office  in 
securing  the  authorized  positions,  even  as  reduced  by  the  Department  (it  took 
18  months  to  get  the  24  positions  reqluested  for  FY  1970).  Not  evident  to  the 
outsider  are  the  lengthy  delays  experienced  in  getting  personnel  on  board  to 
man  the  positions  authorized.  The  Passport  Office  routinely  has  a  chronic  shortage 
of  personnel ;  the  year  round  average  of  60  vacant  permanent  out  of  its  current 
authorization  of  572,  and  at  times  this  has  climbed  to  82  vacancies  as  it  did  in 
April  of  1972  which  is  the  height  of  the  travel  season.  These  unreasonable  delays 
become  particularly  damaging  when  urgently  needed  attorney  positions  remain 
unfilled  in  the  face  of  constantly  mounting  fraud  cases  requiring  their  efforts. 
Outside  hire  restrictions,  as  well  as  other  limitations,  such  as  quota  restrictions 
on  clerical  personnel  aggravate  these  continuing  personnel  problems. 

All  reviews,  interminable  conferences  and  meetings,  procrastinations,  delays 
in  action,  arbitrary  decisions  by  so  called  management  exjjerts  who  have  no 
practical  experience  or  knowledge  of  the  Passport  function  mitigate  against  even 
minimal  safeguards  on  document  fraud.  Indeed,  the  criminal  community,  domestic 
and  foreign,  could  ask  for  no  greater  support  or  assistance  than  the  harassment 
received  by  the  Passport  Office  from  the  current  upper  echelon. 

The  following  Table  depicts  Passport  Office  requests  for  new  facilities  to  adapt 
to  increasing  workloads. 


Number  and 


description  of 


of  state 


Fiscal  year 

Type  of  request 



Date  of  request 



1970 , 

..  Annual  budget.. 

3  new  agencies.. 

,  $204,000 

September  1968... 

.  Denied 

Never     presented. 


..  PPT  supple- 



.     240,000 

August  1969 




..  Senate  amend- 


.     110,000 

December  1969... 

.  NA. 

Proposed  on  Senate 
floor   denied   in 
joint  committee. 


..  Annual  budget.. 


.     240,000 

August  1969 

.  Denied 

Never  presented. 



, do 

.     240,000 

August  1970 





.     240,000 

August  1971 


1  acceptance  offer.. 

.       30,  COO 



1974    . 


.  3  new  agencies.. 

.     255,000 

July  1972. 


1  acceptance  offer.. 

.      85. 000 

do. , 




.  3  new  agencies.. 

,     270,000 

July  1973 


Justification  :    Substatntially 

the  same 


is   applicable  to  each 

budget  submission  and  is  repeated  below : 

This  request  provides  funds  for  the  establishment  of  three  new  agencies  at 
Houston  or  Dallas,  Detroit  and  a  city  in  Connecticut,  It  is  necessary  to  relieve 


the  pressure  of  the  ever  increasiug  workload  in  some  of  the  hirger  agencies  where 
it  is  difficult  to  obtain  additional  space  and  to  recruit  additional  staff  personnel. 
By  further  decentralization  the  areas  covered  by  the  present  agencies  will  be 
realigned  and  the  workload  volume  redistributed.  Funds  for  all  items  except  rent 
will  be  required  in  the  full  amount  regardless  of  when  the  agencies  are  opened. 
The  funds  for  rent  will  be  reduced  proportionately.  Personnel  to  staff  the  new 
agencies  will  be  provided  for  within  current  authorizations. 

The  FY  1973  and  FY  1974  Budgets  also  included  requests  for  Acceptance  Of- 
fices apart  from  the  Agency  in  New  York. 

The  continuing  need  for  expanding  facilities  is  exemplified  by  our  experience 
at  the  Los  Angeles  Passport  Agency.  In  1970  an  acceptance  facility  was  opened 
on  Wilshire  Avenue  in  addition  to  the  downtown  Los  Angeles  Passport  Office 
location.  In  February  1973,  the  Los  Angeles  Agency  was  moved  out  of  town  to  a 
public  building  in  Hawthorne  and  the  Wilshire  facility  ordered  closed  by  the  De- 
partment. Because  of  the  public  outcry,  emphasizing  the  need  for  a  downtown 
application  acceptance  facility,  the  Department  was  forced  to  authorize  the  re- 
establishment  of  an  acceptance  facility  in  downtown  Los  Angeles.  A  new  Annex 
Office  was  opened  on  June  11,  1973,  at  the  U.  S.  District  Court  and  Federal 

In  addition  to  the  above  budget  requests,  the  Passport  Office  requested  au- 
thority to  establish  from  within  its  own  resources  new  acceptance  facilities  at 
various  locations  in  the  United  States.  For  example,  on  September  30,  1968,  the 
Passport  Office  requested  the  controlling  bureau  to  establish  a  Passport  Services 
Office  in  Houston,  Dallas  and  Detroit.  This  request  was  denied. 

A  statement  was  made  at  the  Hearing  that  the  FY  1975  Budget  submitted  by 
the  Passport  Office  may  include  a  request  for  funds  to  implement  a  developmental 
study,  completed  in  May  1973,  on  a  new  travel  document  and  processing  sys- 
tem. This  study  is  currently  being  considered  for  approval  at  the  State  Depart- 
ment Under  Secretarial  level.  If  approved,  implementation  funds  will  be  re- 
quested as  a  separate  project. 

Following  is  a  Table  showing  past  budgetary  actions  concerning  this  study : 


Fiscal  year    Type  of  request 

Date  of  request 

Amount  of    Department  of  State 

funds    action  approval/  Congressional 

requested    denial/date  action 

1971 Annual  budget September  1969. 

1970. Amendment December  1969.. 

1972 Annual  budget August  1970. 


.do July  1972. 

$75,  000    Denied  October  1969.  Never  presented. 

75,000    Not  applicable Proposed  on  Senate 

floor  as  amend- 
ment to  supple- 
mental but  denied 
in  joint  committee. 
75,000    $150,000  approved 
in  Oclober  1970 
for  inclusion  in 
budget.  • 
2  350,000    Denied  August  1972.  Never  presented. 

1  Amount  v^as  doubled  by  the  Department  of  State  to  Include  both  document  development  and  development  of  improved 
processing  system.  Research  and  development  contract  for  an  international  travel  document,  $75,000.  A  study  applying 
computer  or  other  processing  techniques  to  accelerate  the  issuance  of  passports,  $75,000. 

s  Implementation  of  travel  document  study. 

For  several  years  the  Passport  Office  has  requested  funds  for  a  badly  needed 
training  film.  Our  experience  with  this  budget  item  is  depicted  below : 


Fiscal  year 

Type  of  request 

Funds    Department  of  Slate 
requested    action 


1971 Annual  budget. 

1974 do 

1975 do 

"$25,000    Approved.... Enacted. 

35,000    Denied Never  presented. 

35,000    Denied  in  preliminary  Not  applicable. 

•  This  item  was  approved  in  August  1970.  Bids  were  received  from  several  film  production  companies  and  a  selection 
recommended  to  the  Department.  Subsequently,  we  were  advised  that  one  of  the  original  bidders  had  changed  the  amount 
01  his  proposal  making  him  the  lowest  bidder.  Since  it  appeared  that  procurement  procedures  may  not  have  been  properly 
applied,  it  was  decided  in  the  best  interest  of  the  Department  not  to  award  the  contract.  Time  did  not  permit  a  new  ad- 
vertisement for  a  contract  before  the  funds  lapsed. 



Justification:  An  oiK-i-atimi  such  a«  the  T'assjKirt  office  ciinnor  luncnnii 
econoraieallv  and  effectively  unless  provided  jiroper  training  tools— one  nf  whi'-li 
is  a  training  film.  A  training  film  for  the  Passport  Ofiice  is  urgently  required  to 
improve  fraud  detection,  to  improve  and  expedite  training  of  new  employees  and 
to  help  reduce  error  in  passport  issuances.  In  the  opinion  of  professional  training 
oflBcers.  a  training  film  is  an  outstandingly  effective  tool  of  management. 

One  of  the  important  points  to  be  covered  in  any  training  film  would  be  an 
introduction  to  the  "points  of  reference"  or  items  which  would  assist  in  detecting 
the  presence  or  potential  presence  of  frauds  in  adjudication  work.  This  film  would 
be  an  important  first  step  for  new  employees  in  becoming  aware  of  the  fraud 
problems  Involved  in  passport  w^ork.  The  failure  to  have  such  film  requires  all  of 
this  preliminary  work  to  be  done  in  personal  fraud  seminars.  While  the  fraud 
seminars  have  been  effective,  they  have  been  diluted  by  the  necessity  of  covering 
preliminary  aspects  which  could  appropriately  be  included  in  a  training  film.  The 
training  film  would  thereby  make  it  possible  to  concentrate  the  personal  fraud 
seminars  on  the  more  sophisticated  aspects  of  fraud  detection. 

The  Passport  Ofiice  is  years  behind  other  federal  agencies  in  realizing  benefits 
that  can  be  derived  from  a  training  film.  INS.  IRS.  USIA.  VA.  AGRICULTURE, 
FAA.  POST  OFFICE.  CT'STOMS,  AID  AND  FSI  make  wide  use  of  training 
filma.  The  Passport  Office  program  is  not  dissimilar  to  these  agencies.  IRS,  the 
Post  Office  and  Customs  have  a  special  orientation  film  for  all  new  employees. 
Most  of  the  agencies  listed  above  also  use  training  films  dealing  specifically  with 
the  job  functions,  area  of  assignment,  etc.,  which  are  shown  to  selected  groups  of 
employees  as  part  of  the  orientation  and  refresher  training  programs.  Addi- 
tionally, these  agencies  use  either  a  slide  tape  or  video  tape  or  both  presentations 
to  supplement  film  showings. 

Passport  Office  Legislative  Proposals  and  Pills  Introduced  in  Congress  fob 
THE  Relief  of  the  Passport  Office  1956-1973 

Since  1956  the  Passport  Office  has  consistently  supported  legislation  which 
would  provide  more  eflScient  and  expeditious  service  to  the  public  while  maintain- 
ing the  reputation  of  the  U.S.  passport  for  integrity  and  security. 

The  most  consistent  and  important  piece  of  legislation  of  this  nature  has  been 
a  proposal  to  establish  a  semi-autonomous  United  States  Passport  Service  obtain- 
ing policy  guidance  from  the  Department  of  State;  operating  with  a  revolving 
fimd  which  would  permit  the  Passport  Office  to  use  some  of  the  revenue  which  it 
returns  to  the  Treasury  each  year  to  finance  its  operational  and  administrative 

The  first  such  legislation  was  S-3340  introduced  by  Senator  Hubert  H. 
Humphrey  in  the  84th  Congress  on  March  1,  1956.  Senator  Humphrey,  as  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Cxovernment  Operations  Committee,  had  just  participated  with  the 
Director  of  the  Passport  Office.  Miss  Frances  Knight  and  other  areas  of  the 
Executive  Branch  of  Government  in  the  complete  modernization  of  Passport  Of- 
fice operations.  New  equipment  and  modern  personnel  and  management  pro- 
cedures were  introduced.  This  modernization  moved  the  Passport  Office  from  the 
19th  to  the  20th  Century.  Senator  Humphrey  recognized  that  in  order  to  keeii 
up  with  the  ever  increasing  volume  of  passport  services  required  by  I'.S.  citizens 
the  Passport  Office  must  be  in  a  flexible  position  to  update  and  modernize  its 
procedures  to  meet  the  challenge  and  requirements  of  the  times. 

j3;_3340  contained  provisions  for  a  T'.S.  Passport  Service  and  a  revolving  fund. 
The  Passport  Office  fully  supported  this  proposed  legislation,  but  the  Department 
of  State  bitterly  opposed  it  on  grounds  that  it  interfered  with  their  organizational 
structure  and  their  budgetary  flexibility. 

Similar  bills.  S-2()95  and  IIR-54.55.  were  introduced  on  .Tune  3.  1959  and 
March  9.  19.59  Ity  Senator  Karl  Mundt  and  Congressman  Thomas  L.  Curtis  of 
Missouri   in   the  S6tli   Congress. 

A  short  version  Passport  Service  Bill.  S-718,  was  introduced  by  Senator  John 
L.  McCellan  in  the  87th  Congress  on  January  31.  1961.  In  the  same  Congress, 


Congressman  Thomas  L.  Curtis  of  Missouri  reintroduced  his  Service  Bill  on 
July  6,  1961  as  HR-i077  and  again  in  the  S9th  Cousress  on  January  13,  1965 
as  HR-2596. 

In  its  preliminary  legislative  program  for  1969,  the  Passport  Office  proposed 
a  number  of  measures  to  the  Department  of  State.  One  was  an  omnibus  passport 
bill  includiug  the  establishment  of  a  semi-autonomous  U.S.  Passport  Service,  a 
revolving  fund,  establishment  of  self-supporting  Passport  Field  Agencies  when 
and  where  needed  and  numerous  other  urgently  needed  procedural  and  manage- 
ment improvements.  Additional  proposals  included  various  pieces  of  the  omnibus 
legislation  touching  on  such  matters  as  criminal  penalties  for  violation  of  geo- 
graphical restrictions,  an  increase  in  the  fee  for  execution  of  a  passport  applica- 
tion acceptance  function  and  a  long  overdue  reclassification  of  the  positions  of 
Director  and  Deputy  Director  of  the  Passport  Office  commensurate  with  their 
responsibilities.  All  of  these  proposals  were  arbitrarily  rejected  by  the  Bureau 
of  Security  and  Consular  Affairs,  and  to  the  best  of  our  knowledge  deleted  from 
any  reports  and  papers  bucked  on  to  the  upper  echelons  of  the  Department. 

In  1970  the  Passport  Office  submitted  a  preliminary  legislative  program  to  the 
Department  substantially  similar  to  its  1969  proposals.  These  were  again  rejected 
by  the  Bureau  of  Security  and  Consular  Affairs.  The  Passijort  Office  recommen- 
dations died  at  that  Bureau  level. 

In  1970  in  the  91st  Congress,  Congressmen  Robert  N.  Giaimo  and  Lowell  P. 
Weicker,  Jr.  of  Connecticut  cosponsored  HR-13123  which,  while  it  did  not  provide 
for  a  U.S.  Passport  Service,  did  provide  for  the  establishment  of  Passport  Field 
Agencies  when  and  where  they  were  needed  and  a  revolving  fund  for  the  Pass- 
port Office.  Seventeen  identical  companion  bills  were  introduced,  sponsored  by 
over  40  Congressmen.  Hearings  were  held  before  a  subcommittee  of  the  House 
Foreign  Relations  Committee.  The  Director  of  the  Passport  Office,  Miss  Frances 
G.  Knight,  testified  before  the  committee  in  support  of  the  legislation  but  again 
the  Department  of  State  opposed  it  offering  stop-gap  substitute  measures  such 
as  niirht  shifts  in  some  agencies  and  the  acceptance  of  passport  applications  by 
Post  Offices.  As  a  result,  all  these  bills  died  in  Committee.  Time  has  proved 
Passport  Office  predictions  that  these  jury  rigged  measures  were  not  a  solution 
to  the  overall  problem.  Indeed,  they  were  nothing  more  than  sugar-coated 
pacifiers.  Increasing  acceptance  facilities  and  temporary  night  shift  measures 
are  not  the  type  of  long  range  solutions  required  for  the  management  and  pro- 
duction problems  of  the  Passport  Office. 

On  April  7,  1970  in  the  91st  Congress,  the  late  Senator  Thomas  Dodd.  recog- 
nizing the  problems  more  clearly,  introduced  S-3684.  This  was  an  omniiius  act 
similar  to  previous  U.S.  Passport  Service  proposals  with  some  additional  re- 
finements in  the  management  area.  The  Department  again  opposed  this  legislation 
for  the  same  reasons  it  had  given  in  the  past. 

In  1971  the  Passport  Office  again  submitted  to  the  Department  a  preliminary 
legislative  program  including  an  omnibus  passport  act  and  other  proposals  to 
increase  the  passport  fee  and  to  provide  criminal  penalties  for  violation  of 
geographical  area  restrictions.  The  Bureau  of  Security  and  Consular  Affairs 
again  deleted  these  proposals  from  the  Department's  program.  No  effort  was 
ever  made  to  discuss  these  proposals  with  the  Passport  Office. 

However,  recognition  of  Passport  Office  problems  and  effective  solutions, 
similar  to  those  in  previous  bills  and  Passport  Office  proposals,  came  during  the 
92nd  Congress  in  the  form  of  two  bills :  S-1812  introduced  by  Senator  John  G. 
Tower  on  May  10, 1971  and  S-2769  introduced  by  Senator  Hul>ert  H.  Humphrey  on 
October  28,  1971.  These  bills  once  again  proposed  the  establishment  of  a  U.S. 
Passport  Service  and  solutions  similar  to  or  identical  with  those  spelled  out  in 
former  bills.  The  Department  of  State  was  consistent  in  its  adamant  opposition 
to  all  these  salutory  measures. 

In  1972  the  Passport  Office  again  submitted  proposals  to  the  Department  for 
omnibus  passport  legislation  and  these  were  again  deleted  by  the  Bureau  of 
Security  and  Consular  Affairs  without  consultation. 

Finally,  in  the  93rd  Congress,  four  more  U.S.  Passport  Service  Bills  were  intro- 
duced by   legislators   who   recognized   the  urgency   of  problems   and  correctly 


devined  the  solution.  Senator  Hubert  H.  Humphrey  reintroduced  his  hill  on 
March  26,  1973  designated  as  8-1363.  Congressman  Samuel  L.  Devine,  for  him- 
self and  Congressman  Donald  I).  Clancy,  introduced  a  similar  bill,  HR-918G 
on  July  11,  1973.  Senator  Strom  Thurmond  followed  with  S-2331  on  August  2, 
1973  and  Congressman  Devine  introduced  HR-9873  on  August  3,  1973  for 
himself  and  10  other  colleagues. 

While  there  are  some  minor  differences  in  these  bills,  they  are  basically 
similar  in  that  they  continue  to  propose  a  semi-autonomous  U.S.  Passport  Service, 
a  revolving  budget,  establishment  of  Passport  Field  Agencies  when  and  where 
necessary  and  other  management  reforms. 

The  Passport  Office  in  submitting  its  legislative  proposals  in  1973  endorsed 
8-1363,  HR-9186,  S-2331  and  HR-9873  as  providing  the  best  possible  solutions 
to  the  problems  of  the  Passport  Office.  These  problems  deliberately  ignored  by  the 
Bureau  of  Security  and  Consular  Affairs  and  adroitly  side-tracked  from  highei' 
level  consideration,  have  increased  over  the  years  and  have  now  entered  the 
crisis  stage  in  terms  of  national  security  and  well-being. 

It  is  of  considerable  significance  that  the  basic  U.S.  Passport  Service  proposal:- 
beginning  in  1956  and  continuing  in  the  present  Congress  have  been  supported 
by  every  spectrum  of  both  major  political  parties  in  both  the  House  and  the 
Senate.  It  has  been  a  truly  remarkable  bipartisan  recognition  of  the  problems 
which  have  beset  the  Passport  Office. 

Passpobt  Office — Year  End  Report — Workoad  and  Accomplishments — Fiscal 

Year  1972 

Passport  Office  Workloads  and  Accomplishments — Fiscal  Year  1972 

In  Fiscal  Year  1972  the  Passport  Office  issued  a  total  of  2,605,321  passports. 
This  volume  of  passports  issued  represents  an  increase  in  workload  of  12.1%  over 
the  passports  issued  the  previous  year.  Personnel  utilization  increased  by  12.0% 
in  FY  1972  from  702  man-years  utilized  in  FY  1971  to  786  man-years  utilized 
in  FY  1972. 

During  FY  1972  the  Passport  Office  collected  an  estimated  $25,955,783  in  pass- 
port fees,  an  increase  of  14.2%  over  FY  1971.  Direct  operating  funds  for  FY  1972, 
including  pay  for  permanent  personnel  for  which  funds  are  not  allocated  to  the 
Passport  Office,  amounted  to  approximately  $ll,3.sO,000,  resulting  in  a  surplus  of 
collections  in  excess  of  direct  operating  funds  amounting  to  approximately 

In  addition  to  the  basic  workload  of  processing  and  issuing  passports,  the 
Passport  Office  also  furnished  numerous  other  services  and  performed  many 
other  significant  and  important  work  functions,  studies  and  projects  not  directly 
related  to  the  processing  and  issuance  of  passports.  These  seldom  discussed,  but 
nonetheless  significant  and  substantial  workloads,  are  summarized  on  the  follow- 
ing pages  to  provide  a  more  detailed  disclosure  of  the  services  performed,  and 
the  multitude  of  work  projects  imposed  on  the  component  Divisions  of  the 
Passport  Office  in  FY  1972. 


The  Administrative  Division  is  primarily  responsible  for  providing  personnel 
and  administrative  support,  technical  services,  equipment  and  supplies  to  all  the 
operating  areas  of  the  Passport  Office.  The  Division's  work  functions  are  gen- 
erally service  oriented  and,  in  the  main,  are  not  directly  related  to  passport 
processing.  In  several  significant  functions,  however,  such  as  mail  processing, 
filing  of  applications,  accounting,  and  name  clearances  the  workloads  performed 
in  this  Division  are  closely  associated  with  passport  processing. 

During  Fiscal  Year  1972  the  Administrative  Division  experienced  increases  in 
all  categories  of  support  work,  as  well  as  increases  in  nonmeasured  workloads 
involving  budget  submissions,  data  for  other  agencies  of  government,  special 
studies,  projects  and  services. 

The  following  table  lists  the  various  categories  of  work  performed  by  the  Divi- 
sion which  are  either  directly  or  indirectly  involved  in  the  processing  and  issu- 
ance of  passport  books.  The  great  increase  in  each  work  category  must  be 
weighed  in  all  future  considerations  of  personal  and  budget  requirements. 



±  Percent 

fiscal  year 

Fiscal  year—  1972  over 

fiscal  year 

Work  category  1971  1972  1971 

Incoming  mail  handled 2,694,862  3,074,574  +14.1 

Outgoing  mail  handled 109,533  116,134  +6.0 

Correspondence  section  1... nH'ola  oiatii.  j-?4 

Documents  retrieved ,?5?'o..  ,  nnoSc?  iiq? 

Docun<enls  processed  and  filed 3,444,254  3.902,761  +13.3 

Passport  books  distributed 2,711,656  2,889,393  +6.6 

Forms,  brochures,  etc.,  distributed 16,  528,  579  19,  007,  865  +15.0 

Total  items  ot  printing  ordered. 11,444,257  20,363,018  +//.» 

Clearances  processed,  foreign IJi-^iS  ^l^'.ci  I'ol'i 

U.S.  insular  clearances.... 13,820  17,460  +26.3 

File  searr'^es  and  Federal  records  center  phone  requests 55,031  )!^'xli  "*"  ?  c 

Computer  updates._._ 28,737  28,295  -1.5 

Requests  tor  birth  and  marriage  records 7,307  i'f!i, 

Emoloyer  interviewing  and  counseling NA  1,044 Torn 

Training  of  personnel 110  ^10  lu  4 

Personnel  ac'jons .-  1,448  1,656  +14.4 

Peak  season  employment ---  „  271  3/4  T,  S"  n 

Checks  returned... .-  ^  2,700  3,050  +13.0 

Checks  recovered 2,382  ^  j9J  i-a.  i 

Waivers. 1.720  2,392  +39.1 

I  Includes  only  measured  coorespondence  prepared  by  a  special  activity  whose  principal  function  is  to  answer  letters 
from  the  public. 


YEAR    1972 

The  Domestic  Operations  Division  is  primarily  responsible  for  the  issuance  of 
passports  in  the  United  Stiites  and  for  the  operations  of  the  ten  Field 
Ai,'encies  and  the  National  Office  in  Washington,  D.C. 

In  addition  to  its  normal  workload  of  issuing  pas.sports  to  the  general  public, 
the  Division  is  also  involved  in  numerous  services  and  work  functions  as  well 
as  staft  and  management  duties  which  are  not  directly  related  to  the  processing 
and  issuance  of  passports  to  the  general  public.  These  signillcant  and  substantial 
workloads  are  summarized  in  the  following  table.  Diplomatic  and  Official  pass- 
ports are  listed  as  additional  workloads  performed  by  the  Domestic  Operations 
Division  since  they  are  handled  as  a  special  service  for  other  government  agencies. 


±  Percent 

fiscal  year 

1972  over 

Fiscal  year        Fiscal  year  fiscal  year 

1971  1972  1971 

Amendments,  extensions,  renewals,  etc.,  Washington  and  agencies 279,514  94,361                —66.2 

Telephone  inquiries:  ,,.  noo  m  iot                      a  >; 

Washington 144,033  131,727                   — 8.b 

Agencies  (e'stima'te)::::::::::::'.::.: i,o86,oi4  1,091,014         +0.5 

Locater  and  status  cards  filed:  ,  „  ^  ,„,  ^,„                 ,  ,^  - 

VifashinHton                                                      687,945  791,519                +15.9 

Agencies  (estima'te)."::::::::::::::. 2,200,000  2,400,000         +9.1 

Correspondence,  Washington  and  agencies  (estimate). 151,988  ^°I-},I                     en 

Visas  obtained  for  diplomatic  and  official  travel  (Washington  only) 10,434  9,918                  -b.  0 

Diplomatic  passports  issued 5,214  4,994               _i_uin  n 

Courtesy  diplomatic  passports  issued 14  -,  ,i,                      t  c 

Official  passports  issued 72,916  ^M5i                   Tn' r 

Air  crew  certificates  (Washington  only)... 2,021  t^Iq                 jZo?  i 

Duty  officer  services  (Washington  only) 6,337  'iX?                    «'i 

Requests  for  validation  of  passports  for  travel  to  restricted  areas 989  464                 —53.1 

Specially  expedited  passport  applications: 

Congressionals............ 86,295  91,807                  +6.4 

Washington (46,295)           (64,405) 

Agencies  (estimate).. (40,  000)           (27,  402) 

General 400,104  404,714                  +1.2 

Washington (115,785)           (80,032) 

Agencies (284,319)          (324,682)... 

Post  adjudication  of  insular  applications  (Washington  only) 22,514                    (0 re'n'A'o 

Review  of  post  office  applications  (Washington  only) 53,895  399,244              +604.8 

1  Not  yet  received. 



Durinji  FY  1972  the  Foreign  Operations  Division  received  a  total  of  46,844 
cases  from  the  Foreign  Service  Posts  and  other  areas  throughout  the  world 
which  required  action  or  advisory  opinion.  This  represents  an  increase  of  12.4% 
over  the  41,689  received  from  the  same  sources  during  FY  1971.  In  FY 
1972.  45,965  cases  were  completed  as  compared  to  40,208  in  FY  1971,  an  increase 
of  14.3%. 

The  Foreign  Operations  Division  performs  a  multitude  of  services  and  support 
activities  which  are  both  directly  and  indirectly  involved  in  the  processing  and 
protluction  of  passports  issued  overseas. 

The  following  table  lists  the  various  categories  of  work  performed  by  the  Di- 
vision and  the  percentage  of  increase  or  decrease  in  work  experienced  in  FY 
1972  over  FY  1971. 


Casework  category 

Fiscal  year— 


±  Percent 
fiscal  year 

1972  over  fiscal 

1972  year  1971 

Fraudulent  naturalization 45 

Certificates  of  loss  of  nationality 1-  834 

Registration  applications _ 3,  779 

Passport  applications 

Consular  reports  of  birtti ..- - -- 

Correspondence  and  consular  letters _ 

Reactivated  cases 


Advisory  opinions 

Lost  and  found 

Total 40,208 

12, 157 


45,  965 




The  Legal  Division  performs  mainly  service  oriented  work  of  a  legal  and  quasi- 
legal  nature.  These  activities  and  services  are  not  directly  related  to  the  process- 
ing and  Issuance  of  passports. 

The  following  table  lists  the  various  categories  of  work  normally  performed 
by  the  Legal  Division  v/hich  are  not  related  to  passport  issuance. 


Fiscal  year- 

Casework  category 



±  Percent 
fiscal  year 
1972  over 
fiscal  year 


Travel  control  cases.. 1,594  2,589  4-62.4 

Discretionary  actions. 105  357  +240.0 

Fraud  cases 604  614  +1.7 

Domestic 288  300 

Foreign.. 316 314 

Criminal  prosecutions 87  120  +??•? 

Submitted 90  69  -23.3 

Closed 53  37  -30.2 

On  hand 124  ^    152  +22.6 

Passports  lost '20,620  22,902  +11.1 

Passports  found      3,458  3,968  +14.7 

Mental  cases 85  116  +35.5 

Child  custody  cases 483  369  -23.6 

Miscellaneous  cases 1.584  1,986  +25.4 

Circular  outlooks - 426  887  +108.2 

Civil  actions 2__ 8  +300.0 

Total 29^919  34^788  +16.3 

'  Revised. 


(Note. — The  Senate  Internal  Security  Subcommittee  attaches  no  significance 
to  the  mere  fact  of  the  appearance  of  the  name  of  an  individual  or  organization 
in  this  index.) 

A  Paee 

Abel,  Colonel    (Soviet  spy) 58 

Ackerly,    Robert   Dale 21,  26,  79,  83 

Afghanistan    4,  5,  7, 13, 19,  21,  22,  23,  24 

Government 24 

Akron,    Ohio 56 

Al   Fatah 80,81,  82 

Alabama,   State  of 66 

Algeria 37,  47,  48,  80-82 

Algiers    20,25,  80-83 

Allen,  Linda  Pohl 79 

Aman    81 

Amelia    (Dominican    girl) 107 

Amsterdam    19 

Anderson,    Jack 38,  90 

Anderson,   Ronald 108 

Andrist,  Robert  Lee 21,  26 

Andrist,  Robert  Lowe 31.  79,  84 

Appropriations   Committee,    Senate 60 

Arthur,    David    Alan 79,  84 

Ashbrook,    Travis    Grant 27.  79,  84 

Atlanta,    Ga 48 

Australia   40 


Bank  of  America 104 

Barnes,  State  Agent 33 

Bartels,  John  R 2-38 

Basel,    Switzerland 18. 19 

Bates,     Roger 84 

Batista-Castro,  Carlos  Ramon  (Chocolito) lOf?,  107 

Becker,  Dale  Andrew 26,  79 

Beirut 81 

BEL  Task  Force 22,  23,  73 

Belgium    '* 

Belk,  George 63 

Bell,  Herman 58, 104, 105 

Bell,  Jonas 105 

Berkeley,  Calif 18,  30, 47 

Berry,  Robert  L 70 

Bevan,  Rick  C 26,34,79,84 

Bevan,  Ronald 27,  79 

Bidwell,  Thomas  Blake 79 

Black  Liberation  Army 58 

Black  Panther  Party 104 

Black    Panthers 47,  80.  81 

BNDD  (Bureau  of  Narcotics  and  Dangerous  Drugs) 3.61.62 

Boston 91 

Bowers,  Walter  O.   (Buddy) 106 

Bowyer,  Chester  Allen 80,  84 

Braenden,  Dr.  Olav 1 



Brosan,  George 90 

Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love 1-4, 

6,  8,  9, 12-14, 18-26,  29,  34,  38,  44-47,  61,  63,  64,  73,  74,  91-93,  97 

Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love  Inditees  List  of 79 

Brotherhood  Frauds  (chart) 45 

Brotherhood,  The— Master  List  (Passport)  April  18, 1973  (List  of  Brother- 
hood members  believed  to  have  obtained  one  or  more  passports  under 

assumed  names) 83 

Brotherhood  "Orange  Sunshine"  LSD  Laboratory  (photography) 17 

Brussels,  Belgium 22,  28 

Bureau  of  Security 9 

Bureau  of  Security  and  Consular  Affairs 41,  76, 115, 116 

Burke,  Terry 3 

Bureau  of  Vital  Statistics 55 

Cairo 80,  81,  82 

California  3,  6,  7, 1^-24,  29,  47,  53 

California  Department  of  Justice 25,  26 

California  Franchise  Tax  Board 24 

Canada 20,  40,  59 

Caserta,  Daniel  Phillip 27,  63,  79,  84 

CBS  (Columbia  Broadcasting  System) 81 

Central    America 20 

Central  District  of  California 28,  32 

Centur  Printing 105, 106 

Chastain,  Eric 21 

Chesimard,  Joanne  Deborah 104 

Chicago  7 32 

Chicago  Sun-Times   (nevpspaper) 108 

China,  People's  Republic  of 72 

CIA  (Central  Intelligence  Agency) 81 

Clancy,  Congressman  Donald  D 116 

Clay,  James  Henry 79,  84 

Cleaver,  Eklridge 25,  47,  48,  80 

Cohen.   Leonard 83 

Computer  Sciences  Corp 42,  64 

Comparison  of  domestic  frauds  detected  before  issue  in  proportion  to  per- 
centage of  executed  applications  submitted  by  source — Fiscal  year  1973 

(chart)   57 

"Confessions  of  a  Hope  Fiend"  (book) 20,  35,  47,  70,  74 

Congressional  Record 44,  59 

Connolly,  Michael  Stephen 84 

"Contract  Awarded  for  Passport  Study"  (newspaper  article) 43 

Cook  County  Jail 108 

Cosa  Nostra 6 

Costa  Rica 7,  23 

Costan,  James 104 

Court  of  Appeals  for  the  Fifth  Circuit 11 

Crawford,  Ronald  Ray 79 

Crittenden,  James  Leroy 79 

Curtis.  Congressman  Thomas  L 114,  115 

Customs 10,  12,  18,  90 


Dale,  James  Howard 85 

Daley,  Donald  D 69,  71 

Dallas  Police  Department 98 

Damascus 81 

Daniels.  Robert  Lewis 106 

Davis,  Angela 32 

Daw.  John  Robert 26,  79 

Decker,  Jacob 106 

DeJarette  Jon  Jay 85 


Delaney,  Calvin  Larry 79 

Denver ^ 

Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,  Division  of  Vital  Sta- 

tistics — — ———^ — __«.—— — — vX 

Department  of  Justice 2,  53,  90,  94 

Department  of  State 2, 

8,  9,  32,  39^1,  42,  46,  48,  50,  60,  61,  67,  72,  73,  75,  77,  92,  97, 106,  111, 

112, 114, 115 

Budget  Office 41 

Devine,  Congressman  Samuel  L 116 

District  of  Columbia 54,  56 

Dodd,  Senator  Thomas 115 

Doerge,  Keith --— -        g 

Dohrn,  Bernardme -^i  <>J-.  o».  o^ 

Dohrn,  Jennifer 24,  80 

Dominican  Republic ^2 

Drivers  License  Guide  Co £3 

Druce,  Charles 23,  ^,  <9 

Drug  Enforcement  Administration  (DEA) 2, 3,  7,  8,  20,  22,  33,  38,  62,  63,  90 

Drury,  Donald  Karl ^''''-^'31^ 

Duggan,  William  E 2,  38,  39,  43-50,  53-64,  69,  70,  73,  93,  96 

Dutchess  County,  N.Y 15,  18 

Dylan,  Bob *^ 

Eastland,  Senator  James  O l~i^ 

Eden  Press. 


'11  Arrested  in  Phony  ID  Raids  in  Dade"  (newspaper  article) 105 

Elliot,  Gary -_-     3,  28 

Escanaba,  Mich 5,  15,  16 

Europe   24,  51 

Eveready  Business  Forms  Division  of  Safeguard  Industries,  Inc 108 


Familla-Tobal,  Francisco 107 

FBI  (Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation) 37,  61,  70,  82,  104,  106 

FDA  (Food  and  Drug  Administration) 14 

Federal  Government 3 

Feldman,  Martin  E 105 

Foerster,  Werner . 104 

Folsom    Prison 23 

Formanek,   Kenneth 108 

Foster,   Gregory 104 

France 7,  32,  40 

Fraud  statistics  (chart) 95 

Friedman,  Lester 23,  79 

Friend,  John  Christopher 85 

Fuller,  Lester  Samuel 85 


Gaczyna  Spy  School,  Soviet 59 

Gale,  John  Charles 79 

Gallinghouse,    Gerald 105 

Garcia,  Rafael 108 

Garrison,  Gary  Allen 85 

Garrity,  Michael  Thomas 28 

Geneva,     Switzerland 1 

Gentile.  G.  Marvin 70,  72,  73,  75 

German,  Lyle  Paul 27,  79 

Germany    40 

"Getting  High  With  Jennifer"  (newspaper  article) 80 

Giaimo,  Congressman  Robert  N 115 

Golden  Triangle 18 

Good  Times  (newspaper) 25,80 


Government  Operations  Committee 114 

Government  Printing  Office 64 

Haiti 107 

Haislip,  Gene  R 2,  12-15,  18,  31,  34 

Hall,  David  Alan 27,  79 

Hambarian,  Donald  Alexander 20,  21 

Hanna,  Richard  Keith 105 

Harper,  James  M 104 

Harrigan,  Russell  Joseph 27,  79 

Harrington,  John  Joseph,  Jr 27,  29 

Harvard     University 18 

Hashish  and  hashish  oil  statistics  (chart) 87 

Hashish  removed    (chart) 87 

Hawaii     20,  22,  23,  29 

Hayhanen,     Mr 58 

Heard,  Sgt.  J.  W 98 

Hendrix,    Jimi 83 

Hialeah,    Fla 105 

Hitchcock,  William  Mellon 15, 18,  79 

Hoffman,    Judge 48 

Holland,    Michael 106 

Honduras    7 

Hotel     Victoria 107 

Humphrey,  Senator  Hubert  H 114-116 

Hutton,  J.  Bernard 59 

Immigration  and  Naturalization  Service 65,90,92 

Increases  in  Legal  Division  Permanent  Personnel  Rquests  and  Authoriza- 
tion Compared  to  Passport  Ofl3ce  Totals  (chart) 61 

India     5, 19,  40 

"Inside  Report  on  America's  Passport  Lady"   (newspaper  article) 46 

Internal  Revenue  Service    (IRS) 22.24,56 

International  Civil  Aviation  Organization 40,  41 

Interpol     41 

Italy 6, 18 


Johnson,    Gordon    Fred 21,  79 

Johnson,  Robert  D 71 

Kabul    4,  7,  22,  34,  47 

Keel,   agent 28 

Kelly    (code   name) 36,37,48 

Kelly.  David  B 104 

Kennedy  Airport 19 

Kennedy,    Michael 31,  32.  33.  34 

Kenner,    Marty 81 

Kenya  40 

Khartoum    72 

Kim  II  Sung 80,83 

Kimball,  Robert  Richardson 85 

Knight.    Frances    G 2,38-43,46,64-70,72.73,75-78,91.96 

Koreans,    North 80 

Kucharski,  Edmund  J 108 

Kuehl.    Douglas 3 


Laredo,    Tex 10 

Laguna  Beach,  Calif 18,  20,  21,  32 

Police    Department 33 

Lange,  Edward  Jeffrey 79,  85 


Las  Vegas 19-  24 

Laurie,  Roceo 104 

Leary    family 6,  21,  38,  61,  63 

Leary,    John 10 

Leary,  Mrs.  Rosemary 47,  49,  70,  72-74,  80.  83 

Leary,  Susan 10, 11 

Leary.    Timothy 2, 

3,  9-11,  15,  18-20,  22,  23,  25,  30,  31,  35,  37,  47-50,  55,  70,  72-74, 

79-83,  85,  91 

Lebanon   5, 19,  20,  30,  80,  81 

Lehman,    William 106 

Lombard,  Auota  Mara     106 

Lombard,  Dana  Gene 106 


Los  Angeles  Free  Press  (newspaper) 51 

Lynd.  Glenn  Craig 1^'  '^ 


McAdams,  Brian  Kendall J^ 

McAdams,  Yonica  Menne *^ 

McCarran  Airport j^ 

McClellan.  Senator  John  L ii^ 

McCreedy,  Margaret  Ann 4',  49 

McGaffin.  S.vlvia  Edith  (alias  of  Rosemary  Leary) 70,  n,  i6 

McKelvey,  William ^ 

McLean,  Judge  Edward  C 1^^ 

McMillan,    William —  ^°'  tr, 

McNeills.  William  John  (alias  of  Timothy  Francis  Leary) <0,  7-,  i6 


Madrid    ^| 

Mafia ---•- r  ^ 

"Man   on  Most  Wanted  List  Captured   in  New   Orleans"    (newspaper) 

article)   IJ^ 

Mantel,  David  Lee -^ 

Mantell,  David  Leigh T% 

Marihuana  or  Hashish  Oil  Laboratory  (photograph) lo 

Marihuana  Tax  Act- 


Martin,    David ^ 

Martino,  David  Russell   (Leary's  son-in-law) 85 

Martino,  Dennis  John 37,  85 

Maru   (code  name) 36,37 

May,  Edward  Joseph 26,  79 

"Meet  the  Passport  Lady  :  She  Worries  About  You"  (newspaper  article)—        76 
Memorandums  concerning  passport  fraud  case  of  Timothy  Francis  Leary 
alias  William  John  McNeills  and  Rosemary  Leary  alias  Sylvia  Edith 

McGaffin  ;  delinquent  passport  fraud  investigations 70,  72,  73,  75 

Memorandum  concerning  passport  fraud,  fugitives 69 

Mexico   4,  7, 10, 18,  92 

Mexico    City 7 

Miami   51 

Miami  News   (newspaper) 105 

Middle   East 80,  81,  82 

Miles,   Steven  Louis 86 

Milgram,  James 106 

Millbrook,   X.Y 10, 18 

Monier,    Donald 3 

Montreal.   Canada 41 

Morrell,  Walter  David 86 

Morro    Bay 37 

Mosley,    Christopher 91 

Mosley,  John 91 

Mosley,   Kathy 91 



Mosley,  Paula 91 

Mosley,  Richard 91 

Muhaiumed  Ali 81 

Mimdt,  Senator  Karl 114 

Murphy,  Patrick  V 104 

Murray,   Dennis 91 

Murray,  John 91 

Murray,  Kathy 91 

Murray.  Peter 91 

Murray,   Richard 91 


National  Crime  Information  Center TO 

National  Institute  of  Mental  Health 14 

Nebraska    91 

Neilan,  Edward 46,  76 

Nelson,    Daniel 108 

New  Jersey 58,  91 

New  Jersey  Turnpike 104 

New  Orleans 58,  104,  105 

New  York 10, 19,  22,  28,  51,  73,  80,  82,  83,  96, 104, 106,  107 

New  York  Municipal  Court TJ 

New  York  Times  (newspaper) 42,72 

Newman,  James  Carroll  III 86 

Newsweek    (magazine) 81 

Norpel,  John  R.,  Jr 1 

Nichols,  Lee  Allen 86 

Nigro,  Fred 108 

Nixon  administration 90 


Oakland,  Calif 37, 105 

O'Dowd,  John 2,  39,  61,  62,  64 

Office  of  Security 9,  44,  68-72,  74,  75,  91-93 

O'Leary,    Jeremiah 106 

Oliphant,  George 20 

OMB  (Office  of  Manpower  and  Budget) 75, 112 

"Operation  BEL" 21-24 

Orange  County,  Calif 21,22,26,30,73 

Orange  County  grand  jury 28 

Oregon    22 

Otto,  Daniel 108 

Otto,  Jimmy  Gregg 79 


Pacific  Coast  Highway 32 

Padilla,  Gerald  James 26,  79 

Page,   Ralph 105 

Palentchar.   Robert 1(>4 

Palma,  Franklin 80 

Panther  Defense  Fund 81 

"Paper  Trip,  The"   (book) 50-55 

Paris  7, 41 

Park  Plaza  Hotel 107 

"Passjiort  Change  Is  Under  Study"  (newspaper  article) 43 

Passport  Office 2  . 

9,  3(J-42,  48,  50,  53,  54,  59,  53~-^5,  67-71.  T3-76,  91-94.  96,  111-110 

Budget   data HI, 

Legal  Division 3<j 

53,  70,  74,  92,  93,  96,  97 
Legislative  Proposals  and  Bills  Introduced  in  Congress  for  the  Relief 

ot  the  Passport  Office  1950-73 114  Force ~_~ 64 

Year-end  report I 116 



Pennsylvania ^ 

Petacque,  Art ^*^° 

Philadelphia    'J 

Philadelphia  Sunday  Bulletin  (newspaper) 46,  <6 

Plavboy  magazine 9 

Pohl,   Gerald 80 

Pooley,  Michael  Lee 21,80 

Port  au  Prince,  Haiti lOT 

Portland,  Oreg 21 

Postal  Seryico 39,  40,  57 

Pratt.  Jill  Barnett 27,80 

Pratt.  Stanford  Leon 27,  80,  86 

President,  the 42 

Puerto  Rico 92, 107 

Purvis,  Carl  Edward 106 


Randall,  Michael .   23 

Randall,  Michael  Boyd ^—  21,22,28,29,31-34,79,86 

Reagan,  Governor 82 

Reddy.  David  Mark 80 

Redwood  City,  Calif 53 

Ritchie,  Jame.s 71 

River.side   County,   Calif 28 

Rudd,    Mark 83 


St.  Louis,  Mo 6, 15, 17 

Salt  Lake  City 48 

Samples  of  fraudulent  documents  of  identification  obtained  and  used  by 

members  of  the  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love 97 

San  Francisco 19,  22,  23,  28,  29,  32,  47,  72,  73,  74,  104,  105 

San  Luis  Abispo,  Calif 73 

Sand.  Nicholas 6, 13,  23,  27,  32,  34,  79 

Sandoz  Chemical  Works 18,19 

Santa  Cruz.  Calif 23 

Santo  Domingo 107 

Schaffer,  Robert  Yerne 105,106 

Scott,  Charles  Frederick 27,  79 

Scroggs,    Raymond 71 

Scully,   Robert   Timothy _ 79 

Scully,  Timothy 23 

Seale,  Bobby 80 

Sear,     Moray 104, 105 

Seattle  9 32 

Secretary  of  State 32 

Sexton,  Gordon  Albert 27,  79 

Shipley,  Mrs.  Ruth  B 111 

Shakur,  Zayd  Malik ,    104 

Sicily .6 

Sifly,     Raymond-- : : .    1 

Simmons,  Peter  David 26 

Sinclair,     John 48 

Sinclair,     Loyd 2-4,  7-14, 18-25,  28-32,  34,  46 

"Slaying  of  Informer  Linked  to  Latin  Passport  Fraud"   (newspaper  ar- 
ticle)            106 

Smith,   Bernice  Lee 26,  79,  86 

Smith.    Joe 106 

Sourwine,  J.  G 1-78 

Southeast    Asia 7, 18 

Springfield,      Mo 11 

Stanton,  Mark  Patrick 26,  79 

Stark,  Ronald  Hadley ^ 14,22,79 

Statement  of  Legal  Division  Personnel  Requests  Over  the  Past  Several 
Tears     60 



Strange,  Ernest  Donald 2,  3,  8,  9, 12, 19,  22,  28-35,  37,  83 

Stevens,  James  Robert 86 

Stone,  John  Leroy 86 

Students  for  a  Democratic  Society  (SDS) 20 

•'Subverters,  The"   (book) 59 

Summary  of  Passport  Frauds  Committed  by  Brotherhood  of  Eternal  Love 

(chart)   109 

Superioi-  Court  Division  of  Orange  County 32 

Supreme  Court 11 

Sweden  40 

Switzerland 20,  47 


Tanenbaum,    Robert 104.  105 

Tarabochia,  Alfonso 1 

Tarr,  Dr.  Curtis  W 72,75 

Tarte,  Alden  Sanford 105 

Tennessee 98 

Texas    10 

"Three  Arrested  in  Breakup  of  Fake  Driver  License  Ring"   (newspaper 

article)   108 

Thurmond,  Senator  Strom 44,  59,  71 

Thurston.  Craig  Don 87 

Tiemey,  Robert  Edward 27.  79 

Tigar,   Michael 31.  32,  34 

Tokhi,  Amanullah 24.27,  79 

Tokhi  brothers 4 

Tokhi,    HayatuUah 24,  27,  79 

Torres,  Juan  Miranda 107 

Tower,  Senator  John  G 115 

Treasury  Department 10,  90 

Trjtjoli    81 

"Trooper.  Militant  Die  in  N.J.  Clash"  (newspaper  article) 104 

Tucker,    William 105 

Tucson,  Ariz 48 

Tunis 81 

Turkey   7, 18 


U.N.  Narcotics  Laboratory 1 

Union  Corse 6 

Unione   Siciliano 6 

United  States 2, 

4,  6,  7,  10,  13,  19,  20,  21,  23,  24,  40,  42,  44,  47,  48,  50,  51,  54,   58,  59, 
65,  66,  68,  70,  78,  80,  81,  90, 91,  92,  93,  94, 106, 107, 113 

Attorney 46,  63,  64,  70 

Government 66, 67 

University  of  California 29 

UPI  (United  Press  International) 81 

"U.S.  Driver's  License  Gi;ide" 53 

"U.S.  Losing  Drug  Smuggling  War"   (newspaper  column) 38,90 

"U.S.  Orders  a  Study  of  Pa.ssport  System"  (new.spaper  article) 42 


Vancouver,   British  Columbia 21 

Vietnamese,   North 80 


Walt,  Gen.  Lewis  W 1,28 

Walters,  Saul 87 

Washington  9,  28,  46,  65,  76 

Wa>shington  Merry -Go-Round   (newspaper  column) 38 

Washington   Passport  Agency 56 

Washington  Post  (newspaper) 38,54,90,104 

Washington  Star  (newspaper) 43,106 


,  104 

Affairs 83 

Weather    underground -^       .-,q  24  30~31,37.  48 

Weathermen _"_'_r_'__-— '     115 

Weicker,  Congressman  Lowell  P ^2 

White  House,  the "IIIIIIIIIIII I—  38,90 

Whitten,  Les 87 

Wilenchik,  Mitchell  Allen " gy 

Wilson,  Robert  David,  Jr ~_  3^ 

World  War  II 



Yrguarte,  Tiffany 


3      ■iilii^^^^^^ 

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